Police response to domestic violence is a critical subject in many social settings across the world. It is important to recognize that there is a communication break down between victims of domestic violence and the police department. In many psychiatry sessions, psychiatrists get to learn on the high number of victims of domestic violence in the United States of America. Police response framework to domestic violence needs restructuring and evaluation; this is in line with the need to have response systems that cater for the 21st century domestic violence. This paper is going to focus on police response practices, mandatory criminal charges in violence incidents, an assessment of the crime trends and data on domestic violence and finally the future approaches to police response in domestic violence. The above topics would help to give a clear picture of the current state of police response to domestic violence and the mechanism that can be implemented in the future that would help improve the response time and measures to domestic violence.
Police Response to Domestic Violence
Domestic violence is the aspect of seizing control or power over another person for instance spouse through the use of a violent mechanism such as physical assault, emotional or any other form. Domestic violence happens regardless of age, gender, education, status, employment and marital status. It is important to understand that anyone can be violated. Violation of individual rights can be detrimental to the physical, emotional and psychological health of a victim (CHERYL, 2002). In many situations of domestic violence females are the victims. Statistically, women are victims of domestic violence; batterers believe that they have the sole power and authority to enforce their demands on their female counterparts. Domestic violence fits in the context of individuals living in the same house hold.
Police response practices to domestic violence is a critical part in apprehending perpetrators of these inhuman assaults. The police, prosecutors, and the court systems have legal training on the handling of domestic violence cases (Followill, 2016). Aggressive measures need to be taken on the batterers in order to avoid future occurrences of the same cases. In many cases controversies have arose on the general assumption that the perpetrators of domestic violence are men, often these individuals are presumed to be guilty of the offenses. The local government and the state governments have the power to enforce domestic violence cases. The US Congress in 1994 passed the Violence against Women Act. These amendments to the federal laws make it a federal offense to violate a spouse, and it calls for immediate reporting in the case of any form of victimization.
It is valid to recognize that many police departments have a tough time to arrest an individual on the accusation of domestic violence. In the case a misdemeanor occurs in the presence of the police officer would warrant an arrest. Reporting on here say basis is not admissible to the police or the court systems. In the case of presence of substantial evidence a case of domestic violence can be taken up by the police and an assessment of the evidence can solicit for a court hearing. The US Attorney General in 1984 made it a mandatory to arrest an individual in the case of a reporting of domestic violence. Currently, the police conduct warrantless arrests on reports of domestic violence across the States of America.
Mandatory Criminal Charging on Domestic Violence Cases
In the effort of combating domestic violence cases in intimate relationships, warrantless arrests have been enforced in all states in the U.S. Mandatory arrests is the first control measure of intervention in the case an officer finds probable cause to assert that the crime has been committed. Research has indicated that the use of mandatory arrest as a mandatory criminal charge in domestic violence cases has increased the number of domestic violence across America. Mandatory arrests have given power to the police to apprehend the accused initially before any evidence is produced in many cases it is argued that the accused as subjected to be guilty before proven to be innocent ("Police Response to Domestic Violence", 2015). This goes contrary to the legal right of being innocent until proven guilty. Before an arrest is made the responding officer has to determine whether the situation calls for an arrest and if the case constitutes a domestic crime.
Trends and Data on Domestic Violence
Recent statistics indicate that one out of every three women around the globe have been a victim of domestic violence at some point in their life. In other reports from the Bureau of Justice Crime Data, more than three women are murdered by their spouses or boyfriends; these numbers are alarming as the number of cases of domestic violence being reported are less than what is actually happening in many homes (CHERYL, 2002).
Future Approaches to Police Response to Domestic Violence
The future is promising on the fight against domestic violence. The understanding of batterer typologies, not all accused individuals are dangerous. Only 2% of men in society can be determined as severely dangerous to women (CHERYL, 2002). The distinction of perpetrators of these assaults would help determine the validity of the case, and it would help the police to look more into the cases presented.
There is a need for a leap from the male abuser and the female victim violence model. It is important that the police and the judicial system understand that violence goes both ways. There is a need to assess lethal and non-lethal mechanisms in domestic violence. The development in the research on domestic violence needs a critical assessment of the causes of domestic violence, the police response and judicial precedents on charging domestic violence perpetrators.
Sexual Violence Prevention Guide for Walmart Employees
1.1 Problem Identification
Sexual violence can occur in the most unexpected environments. An organization like Walmart should have a guide to prevent sexual violence within the organization. The following are indicators of sexual violence in the office:
Persistent complaints by employees on unfair treatments
Sudden change in behavior like deterioration of work performance
Sexual harassing behaviors such as unwanted notes and gifts.
Instability in family relationships.The above indicators are just a few out of a multitude of indicators of sexual violence at the office ("Sexual Violence and the Workplace: Information for Employer", 2016).
1.2 Types Sexual Violence
Violence by Co-Worker- This occurs by sexual advances, physical assault, and threatening behaviors.
Violence by Senior Officer- This majorly affects lower rank employees. Promotions being issued in exchange for sexual favors.
1.3 Prevention Strategies on Sexual Violence
Environmental Design- Ensuring proper office space allocation in a bid to ensure that employees are spaced out to avoid any contact. The use of glass walls as a partition to prevent enclosed chambers. Visibility and lighting within and outside the business premises.
Administrative Measures- There is a need to develop strong work principles that help ensure easy reporting and intervention on any forms of sexual violence. Policies and procedures of sexual violence reporting allows for the assessment of sexual violence in the workplace.
Development of Counselling Programs- The development of counseling programs for employees at the workplace would help victims of sexual violence recover and get back to a mental health state. Psychological counseling is highly therapeutically for victims of sexual violence at the workplace.
CHERYL, H. (2002). Domestic violence Facts, information, pictures. Retrieved 1 October 2016, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Domestic_violence.aspx
Followill, P. (2016). Domestic Violence Laws and Penalties | Criminal Law. CriminalDefenseLawyer.com. Retrieved 1 October 2016, from http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/legal-encyclopedia/domestic-violence-laws-penalties.html#
Police Response to Domestic Violence. (2015). Criminal Justice. Retrieved 1 October 2016, from http://criminal-justice.iresearchnet.com/crime/domestic-violence/police-response-to-domestic-violence/
Sexual Violence and the Workplace: Information for Employers | National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC). (2016). Nsvrc.org. Retrieved 1 October 2016, from http://www.nsvrc.org/sexual-violence-and-the-workplace-information-for-employers
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