Free Report on Global Events Analysis: Realism and Liberalism Perspectives

Published: 2024-01-07
Free Report on Global Events Analysis: Realism and Liberalism Perspectives
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Politics War Government
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 898 words
8 min read


In September, Belarus' president, Alexander Lukashenko, was secretly sworn in amidst nationwide demonstrations as the opposition and its followers refused to recognize Lukashenko's victory. In efforts to contain the situation, the government has enforced brutal tactics such as the use of batons and stun grenades, arresting and detaining protestors and top activists, and expelling some members of the opposition from the country.

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Armenia-Azerbaijan Tensions

September also saw the escalation of tensions between Armenia and Azerbaijan as the countries accused each other of attacking civilians in the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region. Armenia claimed it was responding to missile attacks by Azerbaijan. So far, this conflict has led to the death of about 33 military personnel and 28 civilians.

U.S.-Iran Conflict

The U.S.-Iran conflict heightened in September also as the U.S. retaliated on its policy in the Middle East, which is to reward allies and not enemies. This was followed by a restoration of the United Nations' sanctions on Iran by America and additional America's sanctions. Iran has been defiant of America's demands and has even gone ahead and exported fuel to Venezuela, a country officially accused of crimes against humanity by the United Nations

Kabuga's Extradition to Tanzania

On October 1st, the French high court ruled that the Rwandan genocide main suspect, Felicien Kabuga, should be extradited to Tanzania to face charges at a special United Nations tribunal. This ruling marked the start of a judicial process for the 85-year-old who has evaded justice since 1994. Kabuga has been accused of chairing a radio station that encouraged the Rwandan genocide as well as coordinating the funding of the genocidal militia.

Al Assad's Stand on Russia's Presence in Syria

In October, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad seemed not to change his stance on collaborating with Russia after claiming that Russia's military presence in the country was significant in countering European and American military presence in the region. This is in light of harsh criticism by America and backers of the Syrian opposition for allegedly attacking and killing civilians using bombs and lethal gas. Assad has maintained that he does not attack his people but is fighting the militia, and therefore his actions do not amount to war crimes.

Consistency of the Story's Events to Either Realism or Liberalism

Realism theory generally views national and international politics from a perspective of suspicion, rivalry, and war. Human nature is seen as the leading cause for the states to act in a self-interest-oriented manner which, in most cases, leads to conflict (Sutch 46)

On the other hand, liberalism can be defined as a political approach whereby an individual's safety and freedom are the top priority for a government. Liberalism proponents argue that states can engage each other rationally and cooperatively.


In the Belarusian context, the evident political philosophy is realism. The government has continuously stated that its actions, regardless of how violent they seem to be, aim to preserve the country's peace and cohesion. One of the most famous realism proponents, Thomas Hobbes, stated that it does not whether it's for gain, safety, or reputation; people will always attempt to subdue each other (Donnelly 14). President Lukashenko's government proves Hobbes' sentiments to be correct as, in maintaining national peace as alleged, there has been continued torture, illegal detention, and use of excessive force against peaceful demonstrators.

One of the realists' arguments is that every state is entangled in power competition in seeking domination over other states, and therefore, power is the most instrumental thing for states (Manan 175). This argument is relevant to the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict as the countries are trying to dominate each other and take control of the Nagorno-Karabakh region.

The U.S.-Iran conflict is also more consistent with realism. This is in line with the theory's notion that other states' interests are negatively affected as a state advances its interests, bringing about conflict and instability (Moseley). As Iran moves ahead with advancing its motives globally, America may have had its interests negatively affected and thus needed to counter this by imposing sanctions on Iran.

Realists maintain that states are always involved in power competition as amassing more power means more ability to advance their interests. Russia's activity in Syria can be seen as one way of gaining more power to advance its interests in the Middle East and gain ground in the region that has long been under the influence of Europe and America.


Francis Fukuyama, one of the prominent liberals, stated that although states still seek to consolidate power, the introduction of international coordination and cooperation frameworks has made it easier to use this power for the states' mutual benefits (Jumarang 1). Concerning Felicien Kabuga's story, liberalism has made it possible for France, a relatively powerful state, to coordinate and collaborate with interested parties such as the United Nations, Rwanda, and Tanzania to ensure a smooth extradition process of the fugitive.

Works Cited

Donnelly, Jack. "The Realist Tradition." Donnelly, Jack. Realism and International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Sutch, and Juanita Elias. International relations: the basics. Routledge, 2007.

Jumarang, Bea Kylene. "Realism and liberalism in international relations." E-International Relations (2011).

Manan, Munafrizal. "Foreign Policy And National Interest: Realism And Its Critiques". Jurnal Global & Strategis, vol 9, no. 2, 2017, p. 175. Universitas Airlangga. https doi:10.20473/jgs.9.2.2015.175-189.

Moseley, Alexander. Political Realism. 2020.

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