|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Race Discrimination Medicine Literature review Essays by wordcount|
Income inequality based on race is among the significant issue that the US faces. Fundamentally, the individuals from the minority race, particularly African Americans, have been reported to earn less than their white counterparts. This kind of disparity has further led to less wealth among Black households. A 2016 report showed that an average wealth of the families with the $140,000. On the other hand, the corresponding level for the households headed by the white was about $901,000, almost 6.5 times higher.
The fact that the African-Americans have significantly less wealth than the whites is worrying, not because it is embedded on the wealth inequality, but also because it strongly influences the ability of individuals to get opportunities in the US. It is critical to note that the economic opportunities offered by the wealth range ensuring consumption against the disruption of the disposable income of a given household, which is essential in facilitating the access to education, health, and housing services. Recent studies have shown that the median incomes of whites and black Americans have risen tremendously from about $23,800 to $35,000 between 1970 and 2018.
The medical occupation is one of the areas where the income gap has been experienced for a long time based on race. This gap implies that white doctors have tended to earn more compared to their black peers. This research, therefore, assesses the underpinning reasons for this gap. As such, this paper seeks to answer the question: "Why do white physicians earn more income than black physicians?"
Appleby, J. (2018). Ethnic pay gap among NHS doctors. BMJ, 362, k3586.
In this article, Appleby offers an excellent exposition of the ethnic pay gap among the doctors. Throughout the paper, Appleby recognizes that income inequality based on racial or ethnic or racial lines is not a new issue in the US. He asserts that the employers have tended to enforce many discriminatory practices that that has continued to disadvantaged the African Americans and the Hispanics in terms of their abilities to land various opportunities in the United States. Appleby demonstrates that despite this uniform levels of education, the labor trends have continued to show that the black physicians still earned considerably less compared to their white peers. However, the gap between female black and white doctors is smaller than that of the men. For instance, the studies showed that the adjusted annual income between 2010 and 2013 for the black males was $188,230.
On the other hand, white males had an average income of $253,042. This is $65,000 higher than the income earned by the black doctors. This source is important because it will provide me with the necessary insights regarding how various forms of discrimination have been utilized to infringe many Americans of their economic rights such as the right to appropriate compensation as others of the same level.
Rimmer, A. (2018). Black and Asian doctors earn less than their white colleagues, official NHS figures show.
Rimmer's article is tremendously valuable in this research. Throughout the paper, Rimmer can demonstrate that the income disparity among black and white doctors results from three primary factors. These include systematic discrimination, employment expectations, and differences in educational qualifications. Broadly, Rimmer defines systematic discrimination as something that occurs through interactions and processes, which creates a massive disadvantage for individuals with certain characteristics such as race, age, gender, and ethnic group, which is done over a long period of time. In this way, some organizations in the US have created policies and regulations aimed at disadvantaging black doctors.
Jaret, C., Williams Reid, L., & Adelman, R. M. (2003). Black-white income inequality and metropolitan socioeconomic structure. Journal of Urban Affairs, 25(3), 305-334.
In this article, Jaret et al. provide an exposition of the issue of income inequality exhibited among blacks and whites. Broadly, Jaret discusses factors such as the perceived educational differences, and employment expectations have been a significant source of discrimination against minority communities. Jaret links the current challenges to the historical perception of the Negro. In this way, Jaret asserts that some customers preferred being attended by the white doctors to the black ones.
In compliance with customer preferences, some hospitals have ended up establishing tremendous discriminatory placement or assignments. This has prevented them from getting jobs that pay well. Notably, both the historical and current issues faced by the blacks are enough indication that the Negro people have never been repaid, either economically, politically, socially, or psychologically for the two centuries that they have been subjected to bondage. This source is important to me because it will allow me to discuss and relate how discrimination and economic stereotypes contribute to the issue of the wage gap between the two groups.
Relevant Findings from the Sources
There is numerous documentation regarding that support the fact that black employees in the US earn less compared to their white counterparts. Broadly, studies suggest that the racial income gap can be explained in terms of systematic discrimination, employment expectations, and differences in educational qualifications (Rimmer, 2018). Systematic bias is one of the primary reasons for the racial income gap in the US. Notably, it refers to a method of discrimination that mostly occurs in the workplace as an intrinsic part of the company. Ideally, systematic discrimination occurs through interactions and processes, which creates a huge disadvantage for individuals with specific characteristics such as race, age, gender, and ethnic group, which is done over a long period of time. As far as the professionals are concerned, studies have shown that some organizations in the US have created policies and regulations aimed at disadvantaging black doctors.
In most cases, this is not done in line with the state or federal regulations but the rules made by the organization themselves (Rimmer, 2018). It is critical to note that the path of becoming a doctor in the US provides a unique space and, thus, is tightly regulated. All the doctors are subjected to a similar education, the same board exams, and consequently receive the corresponding licenses after completion. Because of their high educational backgrounds, doctors should be rewarded for their years of schooling (Jaret et al. 2013).
Despite this uniform level of education, the labor trends have continued to show that black physicians still earned considerably less compared to their white peers (Rimmer, 2018). The gap between the female black and the white doctors is, however, smaller compared to the men. For instance, Appleby (2018) showed that the adjusted annual income between 2010 and 2013 for black males was $188,230. On the other hand, white males had an average income of $253,042. This is $65,000 higher than the income earned by black doctors. Other than inequality, the discriminatory barriers in recruitment and hiring have continued to prevent blacks from getting lucrative opportunities. Ideally, these practices entail restricted access to the management trainee programs and even higher levels of positions in some organizations, the exclusion of qualified women from the position that had been traditionally occupied by males.
Through the control of the current demography, economic conditions, racialized wealth disparities, and racism, other studies have found that the residuals of slavery are linked to present-day economic inequality that is exhibited between the members of the African-Americans and Caucasians. Studies have shown that some customers preferred being attended by white doctors to black ones (Appleby, 2018).
In compliance with customer preferences, some hospitals have ended up establishing tremendous discriminatory placements or assignments. This has prevented them from getting jobs that pay well. Notably, both the historical and current issues faced by the blacks are enough indication that the Negro people have never been repaid, either economically, politically, socially, or psychologically for the two centuries that they have been subjected to bondage. In this case, there is still an ongoing belief in black inferiority that makes them unable to suit the majority of the lucrative economic positions and opportunities that the economy provides (Jaret et al. 2013).
As such, there is still a deeply entrenched belief that black doctors cannot perform well compared to their white counterparts. The majority have thus been denied some of the lucrative positions within the healthcare systems. Those employed have also been subjected to selective discriminatory practices manifested through less salaries, rewards, appointments, and promotions.
In the study by Appleby (2018), the researcher reported that racial stereotypes created by the historical injustices' justified' the low salaries given to black physicians. Although the federal government of the US has continued to implement the appropriate policies towards the enhancement of equality and inequality across various sectors, much has not been achieved about addressing the effects of racial stereotypes of employment (Jaret et al. 2013).
It is critical to note that affirmative action adoption and the minimum wage policies have played a vital role in minimizing this gap, reducing the income gaps across diverse racial groups (Appleby, 2018). The African Americans and the Hispanic communities have been able to get access to the appropriate treatment and compensation as a result, although not as much as their Caucasian counterparts.
'Differences' in Education Qualification
While it is evident that all the doctors are subjected to the same curriculum, same board exams, and same tertiary training and license, some employers have continued to disregard these parameters with the belief that black doctors are not qualified to treat people. In most cases, there has been an argument that black doctors are not as qualified as their white counterparts and, therefore, we're unable to make accurate diagnoses and clinical diagnoses for various health conditions.
These discriminatory perceptions have been based on the historical and racial stereotypes that have long portrayed blacks as inferior people, in all aspects. They are 'inferior' psychologically, cognitively, socially, economically, and politically. In one study, a female physician mentioned that she was not selected for a lucrative job offer despite emerging the best in terms of experience and mastery of the theoretical aspect of her training. In another case, the respondent reiterated that a slight disparity existed in her salary and that of her female counterparts from the white community. In her view, the difference was based on the racial stereotype that led to the implementation of various discriminatory practices.
In conclusion, this paper reveals that the issue of occupational income is still on the rise. Based on the fact that African-Americans have significantly less wealth than the majority of whites because of the deep-rooted wealth inequality, their abilities to get opportunities in the US have been jeopardized. Although medicine is one of the noble fields that consists of the highest respected individuals, not all doctors continue to enjoy the benefits and privileges associated with the occupation.
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