Free Essay on Unveiling Criminology: Exploring Crime, Deviance, and Theories of Victimization

Published: 2023-12-14
Free Essay on Unveiling Criminology: Exploring Crime, Deviance, and Theories of Victimization
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Sociology Criminal law
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 873 words
8 min read

Question 1. Crime and criminality

Crime and criminality balance surrounds two very complex types of research instruments. The primary types of credit are criminality instruments. They measure the level to which individuals view particular criminal acts, either in beliefs and values terms or their specific characteristics. The Criminal Attitude Scale lay within this description and was created to weigh peoples' levels of criminality (Little, 2016). The balances also look at crime as a happening, as shown in the Attitude toward the Prevalence of Stealing Scale.

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Question 2. Difference between deviance and criminality

Deviance is a character that breaches social standards and creates malicious community-based behavior. Some actions are viewed as so dangerous that governments put in written laws that restrict the behavior. Crime is the character that invades these laws and is undoubtedly a vital kind of deviance that affects many citizens (Little, 2016). Because crime and deviance raise hostile community-based reactions, it reminds everyone that all the social requirements must ensure that its members follow the social norms in their everyday interactions.

Question 3. Difference between the classical and neoclassical schools of criminology

Classical criminology describes discouraging measures to prevent crime, while neoclassical criminology learns the technological evidence to find a fair punishment for crime. The two schools of thought do not identify the socioeconomic effect of wrongdoing. Humans decide on a rational basis, but the cause is more complicated when a person does a wrong. Modern criminology shows that wrongdoing is a person making impulsive decisions without thinking of the consequences.

Studies show that lack of jobs and socioeconomic status increase the rates of crime in the community. People with low career and educational chances and lower economic wealth are at risk of committing wrongful acts. Either criminology schools limit the effects of socioeconomic effects on wrongdoing acts prevention in society.

Question 4. Define deterrence theory

Deterrence theory is the thought that a minor force, by the morality of the force's weapons' devastating ability, could pull off a more powerful rivalry, given that this power may be safeguarded against demolition by a surprise invasion (Pratt et al., 2006). The belief grew famous as a strategic military move in the Cold War as they used nuclear weapons and associated with them. Still, far from, the idea of mutual guaranteed destruction, which imitates the massive atomic invasions' preventive nature, would destroy both sides in the war. Deterrence is a method intended to prevent a conflict from making a move not yet begun by means of the threat of counterattack or avoid them from undertaking what another nation desires.

Question 5. Identify the three characteristics of punishment

The theory of deterrence operates on three main elements, namely severity, certainty, and celerity. To start with, by performing particular, or at least allowing the people to think that an offense is never going without punishment with a deterrence factor (Pratt et al., 2006). It is vital for the three elements in theory. Punishment swiftness or celerity is a secondary component in justifying the wrongdoer.

Question 6. List and define four theories of victimization

Lifestyle theory – Most criminologists suppose that the people whose living style adds to their exposure to criminal activities are more likely to be crime victims.

Activities theory – The theory says that predatory crime distribution and volume are connected closely to three connection variables that bring about the everyday activities done in an American conventional living style.

Victim precipitation theory maintains that some individuals initiate or instigate a specific confrontation that can, at long last, lead to the individual being victimized by death or injury.

Deviant place theory – The theory maintains that the casualties do not prompt wrongdoing but instead have a bigger chance to be victims because they serve in community areas that are not organized and hold a high level of life in behavior or lifestyle.

Question 7. Discuss what you think is the best way to mitigate: using the justice system or the social system

Several prison alternative sentences are utilized in countries like Canada, like probation, fines, community service, and electronic monitoring. The alternatives redirect wrongdoers from penal communal-based forms, mainly based on the principles obtained from labeling theory. The reason for changing degrees reimbursed social control, which gives an offender the role of providing the victim compensation for a wrong done (Little, 2016).

Curing social control incorporates therapy utilization to bring back people to a normal state and appease social power that brings the parties to a standard agreement and peace to a socially damaged relationship. Most non-custodial judgments are sentences done in the community, where wrongdoers serve a provisional punishment in the city, commonly by doing some service to the city (Little, 2016). The idea for the method of programs is that the rehabilitation works better if the wrong.


Little, W. (2016). Deviance, Crime, and Social Control. Introduction to Sociology-2nd Canadian Edition. Retrieved from

Pitcher, A. B., & Johnson, S. D. (2011). Exploring theories of victimization using a mathematical model of burglary. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(1), 83-109. Retrieved from

Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Blevins, K. R., Daigle, L. E., & Madensen, T. D. (2006). The Empirical Status of Deterrence Theory: A Meta-Analysis. Retrieved from

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