According to Van & Strong, (2014), the criminal justice policies are the principles of actions adopted by the government's agencies and institutions whose goals are to identify and catch unlawful individuals to inflict a form of punishments to them. Notably, these adopted policies are greatly influenced by the theoretical approaches, ideologies as well as the ethical issues. To begin with, several theories of criminology such as the classical theories which postulate that the society should enforce punishment that fit the crime forms the basis upon which criminal justice policies constructed.
The relationship between criminological theories and the formulated public policies poised a direct link since both are interconnected (Van & Strong, 2014). Tentatively, the procedures are directly influenced by the theoretical assumptions and the laid down proposition. The stricter alcohol policies formulated postulates that alcohol is significantly linked to violence where it constitutes about forty per cent of the violent crime globally. Following the in-depth research, it revealed that the alcohol stores and the gun assaults are highly connected. Notably, the classical theory in criminal justice postulates that the society should enforce punishment that fits the crime committed. It is imperative to note that, the classical theory forms the basis upon which the criminal; justice policies are created. Based on this theoretical analogy, it is evidenced that, by considering the outcome of the crime and the magnitude of the crime committed, countries such as the United States adopted policies such as higher alcohol tax to help reduce crime. Similarly, by utilizing strategies such as reducing the number of alcohol outlets, revoking alcohol offenders to drink are created based on the classical theoretical approaches. Significantly, by arriving at the formulated public policies in line with the classical theory, it is evidenced that, the magnitude of the criminal offences committed determines the general policies put in place to help curb the entire menace.
On the other hand, the crime causation tends to provide a means of connecting the conduct with the results effects of any magnitude of the criminal activity. Notably, the concept of crime causation also focuses on the actions from which the specific injury arose in combination with the guilt. Significantly, the complications experienced in using the criminological theories in explaining causation arose because many criminals engage in behaviors that most people could not conceive of doing themselves. On the same account, another set of complication is manifested because there exists a wide range of criminal misconduct which does not share the source. These unclear explanations on the crime causation render the criminological theories ineffective to justify the claims on the crime causation. For instance, the causes of violent crimes can differ from the origins of property crimes while chronic criminality can vary from the one-time offence. Based on these variations on the purposes of criminal offences, there is a wide range of complications by adopting the criminological theory to explain crime causation.
On the other hand, Ideologies which involve a collection of normative beliefs and values form the most significant impact on the construction of the criminal justice policy Ingram et al., (2007). Similarly, they also involve a set of general and abstract beliefs assumptions about the actual state of things concerning moral orders. Significantly, the ideological that include liberalism, conservatism and socialism are assumptions which are generally pre-conscious play an integral element in constituting the criminal justice policies. On the other hand, it is worth acknowledging the absolute fact that, since theses, ideological assumptions bear strong emotional charge, which takes the centre` stages during the formation of criminal justice policies. The bottom line in this discussion is that the ideologies exert a powerful influence on the policies and procedures of those who are engaged in the formulation of criminal justice. Significantly, the implicit doctrines employed in the construction of criminal justice policies command strong along with the partisan intelligence which forms the basis of development of the criminal justice policies. It is imperative to note that, the divergent ideological perspectives provides an array of ideas needed for the active process planning of the criminal justice policies Ingram et al., (2007).
In addition, Ethics which entails the moral principle that governs a person's behavior while conducting an activity forms the guiding principle upon which the criminal justice policies are formulated Robinson & Darley, (2007). While constituting the criminal justice policies the ethical standards provide the moral reasoning used to define illegal activities as well as acceptable forms of punishment. Notably, the ethical concerns are considered necessary, because the criminal justice policies work best when they are constituted and allowed to operate ethically. Similarly, the ethical consideration is central to the decisions involving force, due process and discretion that require people to make moral judgments thereby forming part of the criminal justice policy. On the other hand, the questions revolving around crime and justice, law enforcement and punishments require ethical standards for effective formulation of policies (Robinson & Darley, 2007)
Van Ness, D. W., & Strong, K. H. (2014). Restoring justice: An introduction to restorative justice. Routledge.
Ingram, H., Schneider, A. L., & DeLeons, P. (2007). Social construction and policy design. Theories of the policy process, 2, 93-126.
Robinson, P. H., & Darley, J. M. (2007) Intuitions of justice: Implications for criminal law and justice policy. S. Cal. L. Rev., 81, 1.
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