|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Criminal law Internet Cyber security|
Internet crimes form one of the main challenges in this era of huge internet technology. In many instances, internet crimes have led to increased losses of both finances and the reputations of individuals and organizations. Besides, there have been numerous claims within the media about computer crimes. In some instances, hackers have been considered heroes in their capacities. Jaishankar (129) also claims, “Terrorist groups have successfully used the internet to increase their memberships.” This scenario has precipitated advances that cyber crimes have reached. In particular, the perpetration of internet crimes has been mainly anchored on the immense achievements in web advances and the technology at large. However, the perception of hacking and computer crimes has been changing due to increased dependency on internet as a result of development of robust global internet infrastructure (Bourke & Craun et al. 593). This analysis presents a critical review of three main categories of internet crimes in the modern society. It categorizes internet crimes into three main charters namely: against government, against society and against individuals.
The perpetration of crimes against the government has been a major challenge to many administrations worldwide since it has resulted into leakages of official data and property into the hands of criminals. First, there have been crimes of electronic damage as well as extortion. For instance, among the western developed society, there has been increased interdependence on complex data processes and advanced telecommunication systems. Any interference on the systems may lead to dire consequences (Krueger & Michael 627). Whether this scenario arises from curiosity or cruelty caused by electronic intruders, there has been an identified potential of inflicting elaborate harm to the systems.
Different individuals and protests groups have hacked official websites for various commercial and governmental organizations. This has compelled defense planners into investing in the information warfare rephrasing mechanisms of disrupting computer infrastructure within the security systems. For instance, there were attempts to interrupt computer systems in Sri Lanka’s government as well as North Atlantic Treaty Organization during the 1999 Belgrade bombing (Jones & Finkelhor et al. 182). Similarly, invaders from Eastern Europe also acquired details of clients’ credit cards of an on-line retailer in North America and further published some on the web after the retailer’s refusal to bow to their demand.
Besides, there has been increased cyber warfare and incidences of terrorism. In recent times, there have been increased seizing of government details that have minimized the potential of states to contain terrorism. Cyber-extortion is one of the sub-categories of cyber-tourism where email servers, computer systems or websites are subjected to constant service rejection by wicked hackers demanding cash compensation in return to stop attacks (Casey 101). To limit this challenge in future, many warring countries foresee their adoption of cyberspace operations by their military commanders to contain disintegrated forms of denial-of-service attacks.
Another major category of internet crime is the one devised against the society. Sub-categories of this case are the cyber-stalking and cyber-bullying. Cyber-bullying is a very dangerous use of internets and other related technologies to harm others through deliberate and hostile way. Currently, many organizations and individual have beefed up campaigns to contain the challenge. Cyber-bullying can range from simple to complex scenarios such as sexual remarks, threats and abusive labels compounded on victims through subjecting them to mockery to cause humiliation among other evil ideals (Liang & Hong 67).
Cyberstalking involves the use of internet and other electronic means to stalk individuals or organizations. This process may entail waging false accusations, threats and identity theft. Besides, it may also result in damaging of data as well as solicitation of minor for sexual advances. Cyber-stalking also entails the gathering information intended to harass an individual or organization with unique goals of gaining financially or otherwise (Taylor & Liederbach et al. 233). Cyber-stalking however differs with spatial stalking although it may culminate into spatial stalking or happens together.
The third main category of internet crime is one championed against individuals. For instance, drug trafficking is a major challenge in the contemporary society. Mexico is one of the worst hit countries as far as drug trafficking is concerned. In recent developments, drug traffickers have been taking advantage of internets to market illicit substance via encrypted mails. Some have been organizing deals in internet cafes through courier websites in order to track unauthorized packages and spread recipes in some restricted regions. Increase in internet drug marketing has however been associated with the absence of effective face-to-face communication framework (Wolak & Mitchell et al. 177). These virtual exchanges permits intimidated persons to buy illicit drugs comfortably. Sketchy impacts linked with drug trades are inherently minimized while the filtering process arising from physical interactions declines.
Another sub-category of internet crimes against individuals is the harassments and offensive contents. Contents within websites among other electronic communications may be offensive due to various reasons. In some cases, such communications could be illegal. For example, one of the most famous areas of internet pornography is the child pornography (Jaishankar 44). Although the contents may be obscene in a less precise manner, insulting comments focused on specific individuals based on certain aspects of gender, religion, and sexual orientation are distasteful (Bourke & Andres 186). These crimes often occur in chat rooms via emails to interested groups or individuals or via the newsgroup. Any comments perceived to be disrespectful are considered harassments and therefore crimes.
Finally, internet crimes have been evolving for a long period since the advent of the internet. Internet crimes have become a major challenge in the development and manipulation of internet technology. From the analysis, it is clear that internet crimes have different dimensions that influence virtually all forms of human society either through the government, society in general as well as individuals or organizations. The extent of damage caused by internet crimes is moderated by the type of crimes and the level of accomplishment of perpetrators as far as internet technology is concerned.
Bourke, Michael L., and Andres E. Hernandez. "The ‘Butner Study’redux: A report of the incidence of hands-on child victimization by child pornography offenders." Journal of Family Violence 24.3 (2009): 183-191.
Bourke, Michael L., and Sarah W. Craun. "Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force Personnel Impact, Risk Factors, and Coping Strategies." Sexual abuse: a journal of research and treatment 26.6 (2014): 586-609.
Casey, Eoghan. Digital evidence and computer crime: Forensic science, computers, and the internet. Academic press, 2011.
Jaishankar, Karuppannan, ed. Cyber criminology: exploring internet crimes and criminal behavior. CRC Press, 2011.
Jones, Lisa M., Kimberly J. Mitchell, and David Finkelhor. "Trends in youth internet victimization: Findings from three youth internet safety surveys 2000–2010." Journal of adolescent Health 50.2 (2012): 179-186.
Krueger, Richard B., Meg S. Kaplan, and Michael B. First. "Sexual and other axis I diagnoses of 60 males arrested for crimes against children involving the Internet." CNS spectrums 14.11 (2009): 623-631.
Liang, Bin, and Hong Lu. "Internet development, censorship, and cyber crimes in China." Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 26.1 (2010): 103-120.
Taylor, Robert W., Eric J. Fritsch, and John Liederbach. Digital crime and digital terrorism. Prentice Hall Press, 2014.
Wolak, Janis, David Finkelhor, and Kimberly J. Mitchell. "Trends in Arrests for Child Pornography Production: The Third National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (NJOV3)." (2012).
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