The southeastern Asian countries experienced a historical mark that shaped their form of government even today. The then-colonial rulers geographically separated these nations irrespective of native political groups, cultural features, or any identical mythical divergences. An acute sequential distinction in underlining the phrase nationalism in southeastern Asia can be traced from the typical differentiation on how the governments were formed. This can be determined from the current modernism era to the colonist times. The state formation subsequently happened in two different ways as subjected in central and inland southeastern Asia. Inland south-east Asian was of agriculture and economics while the mainland practiced the European war-making system.
Colonial governance from all these countries in southern Asia exercised their roles, with each doing practicing a different system of authority as the other. American rule in the Philippine was considered to be a collaborative system where the ruler depended equally on the subjects. Representatives from subjects were selected to represent the United States on the ground. British, on the other hand, chose to collaborate with high citizens of Burma. Activists and those opposing the colonial regime had a lot of difficulties in either choosing to side or fight. The state of nationalism and modernism in these countries can view channeling more details to each country. The subjected countries to be discussed are the indigenous Philippine (Filipino) as well as Burma, the Buddhist nation.
Nationalism in Philippine
Philipines is one of the major countries that marked the movement of modernism in eastern Asian. It was under the moderation and rule of the Spanish empire. The origin of modernism policy came from this nation, Philippine. Religion played a significant role in shaping the modernist movement in this nation. Catholic faith tops the county's population; hence, it was secure form them to borrow of the policies that were recommended by this faith. Educated young elites also defined the root structure of political changes in the country. Most of these students drove their spirit and inspiration from the liberal system of governance from European colonial rulers. These elites, majorly known as ilustrados, participated in politic through an informed democratic movement.
Philippines' plan to seek independence from Spain was cut short by the movement made by the American government of displacing Spain before then (1890). American rule ultimately changes the Philippine world of politics. Two major factor factors identically separated them from the rest of the nations in southeastern Asia. One, they enjoyed a considerable manifestation of agriculture as well as huge landmarks that could enable them to run the government without any instability of food and economy in general. Such lands were entitled to young elites. Two, American rule had imposed education policy to them; this enabled them to acquire leadership skills and proficiency in political formations. Another factor that distinctively separated the Philippines from the rest of the southeastern is the population. Most of them were staying on the island and highlands with high skills in the terrain of such an environment.
One of the determinants of the Filipino's politic was the Cavite mutiny in 1872 that lasted for two days before it was tarnished by the Spanish rule basing it as apolitical propaganda. Many activists such as priests and catholic fathers we arrested and detained or sent away from the country over the same. Among them were three religious leaders, Burgos, Gomez, and Zamora, who were martyred to death. The killing and detentions of such religious leaders drifted away, fearing the trait that Filipinos had over the Spanish rule. Political formation started uprooting as the ilustrados/young educed elites under the propaganda movement initiative.
Among the critical roles of the elites under the propaganda movement was; to enhanced 19th-century liberal policies, standardized laws for the Filipinos that are equal to the Spanish people, as well as political freedom has was enjoyed by the Spaniards. The European colonial rule took heed of their grievances but later defied helping to claim a sentiment from Pop Pius ix was not liberal. Rizal changed his idea of working together with the Spanish rule after the rejection and stated to work with his fellows from the Philippine. He formed a group called Liga Filipina foundation that was aiming to foster harmony, peace, and togetherness in 1892. The Spanish officials dissolved this after a few days while he was exiled internally in Mindanao prison.
Another formation was formed in 1896 under the rule of Andres Bonifacio, who borrowed much of its policies from religious perspectives such as freemason, catholic, and mysticism. The organization was called Katipunan. Its main agenda was to have Filipino granted independent and to be ready for any conflict that may accrue. Rizal denied support claiming time was immature. This movement was equally banned upon realization by the Spanish government. Bonifacio was arrested in that case. Several other movements were formed from the 18th to early 19th century.
Among movements, such as the principalia of 1897 (seeking constitutional amendments), were formed while the struggle continues until the arrival of the American rulers displacing Spanish rulers in 1900. The American rule manufactured nationalism to help control the rebels from the Filipino government. The American diplomats had helped in shaping the independence of the country in many ways, such as providing education to the Philippines, freedom of religious leaders, among other policies. The state had achieved a lot while was gaining it its independent in 1935.
Nationalism in Burma
Nationalism in Burma was kinder different from other states in consideration of various factors. Significantly, one of these challenges was the diverse ethnic division and cultural divergences. The country has constant ethnic groups such as the natives and those that joined from other parts of southeastern Asia. The natives include; Burma's, Arakanese, Shans, Kachin, and karene, while the rest were groups such as Chinese and the Indians. This multi-ethnicity has been a challenge over the years, making it more challenging to employ a unitized reformation in the country. It's the primary reason why the less privileged groups, minors, felt like they won't enjoy the freedom of nationalism. They had to seek help from the British government. This facilitated the coming of colonialism in Burma.
The coming of British rule, through the 3rd Anglo Burmese war in 1885, specifically influenced Burma's' politic from the then time or even in their future politics. The monarchial rule was tempered with when the ruling king, Thibaw, thrown out of the palace. He was never replaced because not a single opposition leader was left life under his watch. Nonetheless, the monarchy was left to run to gain access to the country. Traditional elites were reinstated that sided with the colonial government. Most of the people were against this entity; notably, they joined hands with the British government as collaborators. This had been a significant obstacle as it was considered to distinctively separating the country.
The other policy that influenced nationalism in Burma was the idea of uniting Burma and India irrespective of their consent. To their advantage, India was much ahead of them in terms of colonial defiance except in the Philippine, which was formed earlier. India had started the quest for independence from 1885. The pact leads to several Burma visiting India to learn leadership and governance skills, thus serving as influence governance and the rule of their subjects. The policy stated that every governance move happening in India was to be experienced in Burma too. The tie also denatured rule that was baring both immigrants from each country. Moreover, more of the Indians were allowed to participate at the lowest economic level hence helping in training Burma's as well as raising their economy. Despite all these, other rebels were still making it hard for the British arm to acquire Burma fully. The insurgents were disadvantaged royals, few minors who were not considered in the government and rebels of elites.
Some of the earliest modernists formed was; the association for the young Buddhist formed in 1906. It was initially based on local issues rather than politics, but the kind of attire to be worn while attending their religious services forced them to go political way. It separated the British and the Buddhists, who were the natives. The British conceded as a result. Another group was that of Association for the general council of Burma that was formed in 1921. Their main agenda was more political. They had planned to support the university students who were striking to shape the political situation of the country. Other issues addressed were the relation between the Indian state and theirs.
Between 1920 and 30s, several political formations were made in mind of supporting the local ethnic divisions. They formed to seek help from these groups to build a stable nationalism country. All the same, other groups felt they were not considered as this policy was for the majority and not the minority. After the 1930s, numerous political associations were being formed, fighting to secure independence. Several commissions were also built on the same. This was resulting from unsatisfied citizens who were claiming that the British rule was unfavorable to all of them. Most of the activists were the students from universities who also felt there is a lack of inclusivity. They finally got their independent after seeking assistance from the Japanese government
Comparison between Nationalism in Philippine and Burma
Nationalism was the main subject that defined the fate of these two countries in securing independent. Just like in the Philippine, Burma gained her independent mostly from young elites. Young elites from the university were among the activist who spearheaded the deformation of the colonial government. Young elites from the Philippines owned vast lands that enabled them to build a robust agricultural economy, thus raising the country's stability in as far as economics is concerned. They also participated in the reform and buildup of the constitutions that help in fighting their nation from captivities of the colonial rulers. The young elites from Burma organized numerous strikes alongside workers that were aimed at doing away with a tie between Burma and India.
Faith was also another factor that pushed or paved the way for the decolonization in these two nations. Most of the Filipinos were considered Catholics, while in Burma, Buddhism was the primary determinant of the denomination. Most religious leaders participated in many ways before the arrival post-colonial era. The killing and detentions of such religious leaders drifted away, fearing the trait that Filipinos had over the Spanish rule. Catholic fathers, we arrested and detained or sent away from the country over the same. Among them were three religious leaders, Burgos, Gomez, and Zamora, who were martyred to death. Buddhism, as a religious body formed associations such as the young Buddhism association formed in 1906 to question the new rule leaving shoes at the door while entering the door. It was also seeking clarification as to why Buddhists were treated differently from the British, yet Buddhists were the natives.
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