What distinguished Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight of 1927 from earlier and later transatlantic flights? Who flew around the world and why did they do it?
Charles Lindbergh was an American aviator who made a first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean. The flight was unique from other flights that had been made by other pilots because Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic Ocean alone. He was the first person to have nonstop flight alone. The happening made him gain international fame and recognition, unlike other pilots who had cross the Atlantic before (Berg, 2013). He was named "Lucky Lindy" and "Lone Eagle" by the press because of the courageous lone move he took. The heroic flight made by Lindbergh excite the world making him be awarded, and he received parade salutation.
After his famous flight, Charles Lindbergh received an offer to tour the states of America. There were a North Shore multimillionaire and aviation enthusiast who met with Charles Lindbergh before he left for Paris (Berg, 2013). The two became friends, and Guggenheim paid for a three-month tour for Lindbergh to fly across the United States. The tour was meant to encourage aviation research in America. Lindbergh touched down in 49 states, gave 147 speeches, visited 92 cities and rode 1,290 miles in parades during the tour.
How did Germany use aircraft during the blitzkrieg invasions of Poland, Belgium, and France? What defenses proved effective for Great Britain during the aerial Battle of Britain? How did the aviation industry adopt line production during World War II?
During the blitzkrieg invasions, Germany used their aircraft to destroy Poland's combat ability to attack (Hargreaves,2010). They used their air force (Luftwaffe) to bomb France and Belgium. Germany used the aircraft to fly into the enemy lanes very fast and take over their airports and planes. This helps them to dominate the air space and the skies. These moves devastated the opposing countries without being challenged in the skies.
During the aerial battle, Great Britain was in a position to put in place their air force in time. They were able to fight in the skies to defend their airfields and planes. With their aircraft up and working, they were able to defend Germany from gaining access to their skies. From their defense, they were not able to give in to the Germans.
The aviation industry adopted the line production during the World War II due to the need for mass manufacturing of aircrafts. Aircraft manufacturing industries building of a plane at a time to building of thousands of planes on the assembly lines. This led to the large volume and production line for skill and flexibility.
Discuss the Chicago Conference. Include when the conference occurred, what were the issues, what "freedoms" did they agree on, and what were the disagreements.
Delegates from different territories met in Chicago in 1944 to discuss sovereignty over their respective territories. During the First World War, the weapons were carried using aircraft and the world took note of it. All the world states decided that they needed to enforce their sovereignty of their states.
During the convention, the delegates agreed upon the new convention that was used as an air law reference for both domestic and international. They agreed upon five sub-agreements. The five agreements were granted to each signatory present at the conference. They agreed on the right to fly across another territory without landing and right to land for non-traffic purposes such as fueling. The right to put down passengers and cargo taken on in the territory of the aircraft's nationality, and the right to take passengers and cargo destined for the territory of the aircraft's nationality. Finally the right to take on passengers and cargo and to drop-off passengers and cargo destined for, or coming from the territory of any state signatory to the Chicago Convention.
What was the legislation that created the Federal Aviation Agency? When was it passed by Congress and did it become operational? What type of agency and what transition occurred?
Senator A. S. Monroney introduced a bill in 1958 that aims at creating an independent Federal Aviation Agency. The federal aviation agency main goal was to provide for the safe and efficient management of national airspace ("A Brief History of the FAA," 2017). The president was able to sign the bill into the act on August 23, 1958. The federal aviation act transferred the Civil Aeronautics Authority into the new independent Federal Aviation Agency. The federal aviation agency role was aviation safety. The legislative purpose of the agency was to regulate the United States commercial space transportation as well as regulating air navigation facilities and flight inspection standards.
The Congress passed it, and the president signed it on August 23, 1958. As soon as the act was signed, the federal aviation agency came into place. It came into operational though it assumed its functions through stages. Before the federal aviation agency came into place, an authority named Civil Aeronautics Authority operated. The passage of the act gave birth to the federal aviation agency. Unlike the former authority the federal aviation agency had more of a regulative role in air transport regulation. The agency was a later changed to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1967 due to the creation of a new department of transport (DOT).
Compare and contrast American and Russian human space flight programs
The battle of the space kicked off as soon as Russia launched Sputnik, which became the world first artificial satellite to be placed in the earth's orbit (Millbrooke & Anne, 2006). The Russians had initial success at the outset of the cold war space race. Compared to the United States, Russia became the first ones to get into space. The sputniks launch did not please the Americans as they saw the space as their next frontier to dominate and they saw it crucial not to lose the battle to Russians. The united states saw it as a matter of urgency and in 1958; they launched its satellite that was designed by united states army. Unlike the Russian satellite, the American satellite was meant for space exploration.
Due to the security concerns, the United States, unlike the Russians, created two security oriented space programs. The first program was headed by the United States air force that was dedicated to exploiting potential military space. The second one was Central intelligence agency, the air force and the National Reconnaissance Office that uses satellite to gather intelligence on Russia and its allies headed the other one. In 1959, Russia launched Luna 2 that became the first probe to hit on the surface of the moon. And in 1961 Russia became the first to send a man to orbit the earth using spacecraft Vostok 1. Later in 1962, Glen became the first American to orbit the earth as Apollo was already destined to land in the moon.
Russia had the initial success in the cold war space race, but the United States outshined their space programs landed their men in the moon numerous times in the face of Russia inability to do the same ("The Space Race," 2010). Unlike Russia, United stated space program focuses on economic philosophies, the excessive secrecy and space programs in respect to their scientific communities.
What is the historical significance of the Airline Deregulation Act passed by the US Congress in 1978?
The airline deregulation act is a United States federal law that was passed in 1978. The federal law deregulated the airline sector in the United States by removing the federal authority from controlling over an area such as routes, market entry of new airlines and fares. The airline deregulation act introduced a free market in the section of the commercial airline sector, which created an increase in the number of flights. The airline deregulation act also led to a decrease in fares due to the availability of flights, increased the number of individuals traveling, and the miles flew.
The act became very important in history as it was recorded that the average fare had decreased compared to earlier days ( Morrison,2010). The airline deregulation act has increased the passenger load significantly, as airlines can transfer the larger aircraft to longer routes and replace them with smaller ones on shorter routes. The airline deregulation has eliminated the restrictions that were subjected to airline industries. It has managed to improve the ease of operating a business in the airline industry. The airline deregulation act has removed the restrictions that could hinder a firm company's ability to compete with others especially internationally. It had protected consumers from the exploitation from high fares subjected to them before the act was in place.
A Brief History of the FAA. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.faa.gov/about/history/brief_history/#origins
Berg, A. S. (2013). Lindbergh. Simon and Schuster.
Hargreaves, R. (2010). Blitzkrieg Unleashed: The German Invasion of Poland, 1939. Stackpole Books.Millbrooke, Anne (2006). Aviation History. Englewood, CO: Jeppesen Sanderson. ISBN: 0- 88487-433-8
Morrison, S., & Winston, C. (2010). The economic effects of airline deregulation. Brookings Institution Press.
The Space Race. (2010). Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/space-race
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