|Type of paper:||Research paper|
|Categories:||Knowledge Engineering Water|
Surge vessels also known as surge tanks or water hammer is a storage reservoir or standpipe at the downstream culmination of a closed channel, or a dam used to fascinate an abrupt rise of pressure and also additional water during a drop in pressure. Water stations need these vessels since they are essential assets in the water treatment process, though poor management and maintenance can result in issues in pipeline costs as well as causing burst in pipes, structural damage, colossal water wastage, and negative pressure. Compressor and bladder types are kinds of surge vessels used by the water pumping stations. Surge is a sudden increase in something; hence, during water pumping, we experience the surge. Therefore, we require these vessels to control it. This process occurs in the water stations when the flow rate of the pumps is changed, and valves are unlocked or locked beside the pipelines. Hence this will lead to extreme pressure fluctuations which when not controlled, can cause terrible problems like the bursting of the pipes, unnecessary water loss and interference of water supply by the water companies.
Types of Surge Vessels
Bladder type; it is a kind of vessel aimed to control the surge with a butyl latex inside the vessel to offer the required flexibility to drive the water is flowing into the system following a pump trip as well as the calculation of pre-charge compression which will be vital. In incidence where there is no contact between the (Vereide, Richter, Zenz, & Lia, 2015) compressed air and water, there will be no termination hence there will be no need for a long-lasting regulation system. After the vessels have been stimulated, and the introduction of the correct pre-charge has been made, the bladder surge vessel will operate automatically.
Components of Bladder Surge Vessel
- The bladder surge vessel has a bladder fixed on the outlet as well as inlet connection designed to expand the vessel to its full size; hence it sanctions for less stress on the bladder and better drawdown volumes.
- It is designed in a way that air is trapped in the space between the outside of the bladder and the vessel walls to prevent contact between the liquid and the vessel steel walls.
Compressor Type and its Components
It has the hydraulic analysis that gives results of values accustomed to the pre-charged pressure hence permitting water to go inside the vessels (Brun, Nored & Kurz, 2015) under static situations and begins to compress once the entry valve is unbolted. Therefore, water will flow into the vessels leading to compression until the balance between the liquid and the compacted gas is arrived at. After the pumping process, the rate of pressure begins to reduce, and water will be discharged by the elastic energy.
Purpose of Surge Vessels
A properly managed surge vessel helps to stop bursts as well as leaks to decrease water wastage and safeguard the water meant for drinking from contamination. By protecting water from contamination ensures that individuals using the water are not affected by diseases such as cholera or even typhoid.
Another function is that the surge in (Grabarek, 2015) water stations creates a shock absorber for pressure spikes which assists in pumping during a stop or start, valve termination or even unanticipated power failure.
To increase the efficiency of the vessels, we need to fix the surge vessels often or even replace or even renovate the present vessels. Hence by studying hydraulics, we will be able to specify the initial air volume, which is critical as well as the surge vessel volume to protect the pumping main. This will also allow for the identification of the location where the air valve should be installed and its operational characteristics. The hydraulic survey or study can enable one to be able to establish the number of surge vessels required and the initial air volume necessary hence increasing the life-span of these vessels through installing the correct number of the vessels.
Surge tanks control the pressure disparity caused by the swift alteration in the velocity of the water. This occurs when the power turbine is running at a steady load; there isn't a surge in the water flow since the quantity of the flowing water is sufficient to meet the turbine's desires.
Utilizing surge control apparatus decreases pressure passing; hence, the pipe substantial stresses are reduced to meet the verified piping standards.
Issues such as leakages and reduction in water quality will reduce due to infrastructure and network fiasco in the pumping stations.
The steel surge that has been used for many years can cause a lot of harm to the people using the water supplied by the surge tanks since there is corrosion on the vessels hence contaminating the water being supplied.
These vessels have assisted the water pumping companies all over the globe for their ability to supply water at a higher pressure and large volume hence no individual is seen complaining of lack of water where other people are being provided with water. With the kind of measurements placed by these companies, the people can use well-treated water, and where there are leakages, they send their team to correct the problems.
Abdelaal, M., Franzle, M., & Hahn, A. (2018). Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for trajectory tracking and collision avoidance of underactuated vessels with disturbances. Ocean Engineering, 160, 168-180.
Brun, K., Nored, M. G., & Kurz, R. (2015). Impact of piping impedance and acoustic characteristics on centrifugal compressor surge and operating range. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 137(3), 032603.
Coachman, W. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,200,603. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Sandvag, S. U. (2016). Surge Tank Atlas for Hydropower Plants (Master's thesis, NTNU).
Grabarek, M. (2015, June). Application of wavelet decomposition for ship Power Surge Compensator. In 2015 9th International Conference on Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE) (pp. 364-368). IEEE.
Vereide, K., Richter, W., Zenz, G., & Lia, L. (2015). Surge tank research in Austria and Norway.
Young, W. B. (2018). U.S. Patent No. 9,982,825. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
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