|Type of paper:||Annotated bibliography|
|Categories:||Criminal law Criminal justice|
Fite, P. J., Gabrielli, J., Cooley, J. L., Rubens, S. L., Pederson, C. A., & Vernberg, E. M. (2016). Associations between physical and relational forms of peer aggression and victimization and risk for substance use among elementary school-age youths. Journal of child & adolescent substance abuse, 25(1), 1-10.
This article talks about relational and physical forms of peer victimization and aggression among school-based youths. It evaluates the relationship between victimization and aggression as well as the limit to which youths are exposed to risks associated with the use of substances. It depicts a study conducted on students from second grade to fourth grade. As noted from this study, physical aggression is highly associated with the possibilities of the youths indulging in substance abuse as compared to physical victimization. It is crucial to note that the study does not portray how victimization and relational aggression expose the youths to the risks of substance abuse.
The method used in this study included a sample of 231 children of both genders and their teachers. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate the sentiments of every participant regarding the topic. Various measures were applied to evaluate the outcome of the study. The procedure involved collecting data for one month. Consent forms for the participants were signed making the research possible. Qualitative analysis was conducted to establish how children are affected by victimization and aggression.
Limitations of the study included focusing on one area of subjects. Caucasians were the only people subjected to this research. This is a limitation since other regions were not considered. Also, the youth participants included second grade to fourth-grade children. The study did not consider other youths who could have posted different results. The study ignored the influence of families on children's substance abuse and only concentrated on peer victimization and aggression.
The author is biased due to concentrating on Caucasian people and ignoring other regions. Also, the research concentrated on a certain age group that does not represent all youths. The study focused on possible instances of peer aggression and victimization but did not consider mitigation and prevention measures. Although the study had some limitations and biases it is important to note that it included both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This made the results of the research strongly founded on previous and current studies.
Anderson, R. E., Cahill, S. P., & Delahanty, D. L. (2018). Differences in the type and sequence order of self-defense behaviors during a high-risk victimization scenario: Impact of prior sexual victimization. Psychology of Violence, 8(3), 339.
This article is about the defense mechanism of women when exposed to sexual victimization. It seeks to establish various self-defense behaviors that women usually portray when dealing with sexual abuse. As noted from the study, assertive behavioral response to threat (BRTT) is an effective way of countering sexual assaults. On the other hand, nonassertive BRTT may expose victims to the dangers of sexual assault. After analyzing various defensive responses, the study concludes that multiple BRTT is the best strategy for overcoming the sexual assault. However, women who have earlier been exposed to sexual assault are likely to apply different BRTT methods due to the trauma they have had before.
The method used in this article involved 135 college women who acted as the participants. They included women who have previously been sexually assaulted and others who had not faced the situation. Laboratory-based self-defense method was applied to determine how the women would react to different situations when exposed to sexual assault. This included listening to recorded materials which had sexual abuse instances and pausing for the participants to give their views on how they would face such cases. It is important to note that the participants and the administration of the university that this study was conducted consented to the research in advance. Questionnaires were administered to the participants in order to collect their assertions and determine their response to such instances.
The author of this article seems bias since the study involved limited people and region. The research involved 76.3% Caucasian, 5.9% Asian, 17.8 African Americans, 4.4% Latina and 4.4% Native American. This shows that a lot of emphases were on Caucasians. Also, the 88.9% of the participants were heterosexual. In this regard, the study did not consider other groups such as gays and lesbians.
The study had various limitations. Of interest is a limited sample that was taken which could not give a possible picture of sexual violation on women. Also, the allocation of victimized and non-victimized groups was not well defined to show the different approaches that the two can take in responding to sexual assaults. However, the study considered the use of BRTT and behavioral response questionnaires (BRQ). The approach was well defined thus giving detailed results that suggest that most of the victims are highly likely to use multiple BPTT in responding to sexual harassment. Also, qualitative and quantitative approaches were instrumental in giving a detailed analysis.
Zimmerman, G. M., Farrell, C., & Posick, C. (2017). Does the strength of the victim-offender overlap depend on the relationship between the victim and perpetrator?. Journal of Criminal Justice, 48, 21-29.
This article evaluates the relationship that exists between a victim and the perpetrator. The focus is to establish whether the victim-offender overlap is influenced by how the two relate. As established from this article, different researches have been done to unveil the cause of increased violence in the society. Of interest is offending and victimization which forms the basis for various conflicts. The study tests whether betrayal trauma theory is applicable when determining offenses and victimization. Results show that victimization and offending are highly correlated in most instances.
The method applied in the research included interviewing a sample of about 343 neighborhood clusters. The participants were based in Chicago thus making it easy to access them. Over 6000 youths of age between 3 and 18 years were asked questions relating the victimization and offending. They gave accounts of cases they have experienced in the neighborhood to give a clear picture of the concern. Data on their response was analyzed and related to secondary researches that have previously been done. The data used was retrieved from the Project on Human Development in Chicago.
It is crucial to note that the research was highly biased due to the failure to consider other age groups affected by victimization and offending. Also, the author failed to balance the participants based on gender to understand how differently they respond to circumstances. The study concentrated on youths and peer relationship but ignored other factors that may influence offenders such as psychological, physical and upbringing among others. This is a bias as well as a limitation of the article. It is interesting to note that the study applied a three-level logistic approach which is a strong model of conducting a research. It also considered secondary and primary data making the research very effective. However, it was faced by limitations such as concentrating on Chicago-based population and ignoring other areas. Also, the interview involved asking personal and direct experiences without considering the effect of hearing or witnessing violence in the neighborhood. The research took a high interest in interviewing victims. However, offenders were not given a chance to give their views making it a biased and limited approach. As noted in the article, the strength of victim-offender highly overlaps based on the relationship between the parties.
Howell, K. H., Thurston, I. B., Schwartz, L. E., Jamison, L. E., & Hasselle, A. J. (2017). Protective factors associated with resilience in women exposed to intimate partner violence.
This article is about women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). It seeks to investigate the factors that enable resilience in such women after going through various aspects of IPV. As noted in the article, cultural, community, relational, and individual variables are very important in providing resilience of the affected individuals. Also, community cohesion, social support, spirituality and ethnic identity are some of the predictors that highly influence the resilience of IPV victims. After evaluating many instances and scholarly work related to the topic, the research concludes that women exposed to IPV go through difficult times in their lives. It is through the help of important people and spirituality that the affected women are able to heal.
The method used in the study included administering questionnaires to 112 women who had suffered IPV in the last 6 months. The age limit was 22-49 years. The study is characterized by biases of concentrating on black women. As noted from the study, 67.8% of the participants were black, 11. 6% white, 14.9% multiethnic, and 5.7% from other races. It is important to note that most of the participants (71.9%) had an income of less than $20,000. This is a bias since the higher earners are excluded. Out of the participants, 50.4% were employed meaning that a good balance was observed.
The study was uniquely conducted since it incorporated demographic control variables and life stressors to get detailed information regarding the matters. Also, the application of SPSS version 23 in data analysis made it possible to get exceptional results with certainty. However, the study was faced with various limitations. The author did not factor men thus making it difficult to evaluate whether they too are affected. The use of self-report data poised limitations since it was possibly uncomfortable disclosing personal information. As noted in the article, the participants were from community resource centers. Therefore, other women were not considered.
Baumgartner, F. R., & Lyman, T. (2015). Race-Of-Victim Discrepancies in Homicides and Executions, Louisiana 1976-2015. Loy. J. Pub. Int. L., 17, 129.
This article talks about race-based discrepancies in matters homicides and execution in the US. According to the article, most of the homicide affected people who have not been satisfied with the enforcement of the execution of the perpetrators in Louisiana are African Americans. They complain of victimization and discrimination when it comes to death sentences and execution. Historically, sentences that required execution of the perpetrators of the crime have not been taken seriously since 1976. The study evaluates Antebellum and colonial era and shows a noncompliance trend when it comes to executing homicide cases where blacks are the victims. Also, the Jim Crow era, reconstruction, and the post-reconstruction era were evaluated showing how justice for black Americans' homicide victims has not been served.
The author of this article is biased since most of the parts concentrate on black discrepancies. The study is based on comparing blacks, whites and other races on matters homicide sentences and execution. As noted from the study 61% of homicide victims in Louisiana comprise the black males. Out of 12,949 homicides, only 3 offenders have been executed. Statistics on the white victims and execution of the killers is not emphasized on in this article. Also, the author has selected Louisiana to show how cases are dealt with in America. This criterion is biased since it does not cover other areas.
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