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Methods of research and inquiry [Section 1H, 2019]Under-Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students in Higher Education of Hong Kong
Ethnicity is a debated word in the social science that addresses it in a way that neither the perception of nation nor race can. Race is a socially developed idea that has been generally viewed as logical certainty. Race suffers as a social referent since it identifies with the manners by which individuals are classified and treated due to physical attributes (Lin & Scherz, 2014). Nationality, in its cutting-edge sense, identifies with the sway of a country state and the lawful status of having a place. Ethnicity is essential to the two ideas as it identifies with a blend of personalities that are acquired, credited, and embraced (Lin & Scherz, 2014).
Previous research conducted on students associated with ethnic minority backdrop indicates that they have a lesser completion rate as compared to non-minority persons in higher education completion. This research shows an in-depth perceptive of the challenges that ethnic minority teenagers face to further their higher education studies concerning the intensity of school dropouts within ethnic outnumbered teenagers in Hong Kong. The research also further looks into what strategies can be laid to raise the voices of the ethnic outnumbered students.
The Focus of the Chapter
This chapter addresses by providing a context on the legal and historical background in which ethics outnumbered teenagers' higher educational rights are covered in Hong Kong. This chapter breaks down to define the problem, objectives of the study aims and the research questions presents an extensive rationale, features the crucial aspects of the study, and summarizes the framework of the thesis.
Background of the Study
According to Literature, ethnic minority teenagers' education foundation was never quoted during colonial times. The first full recognition of the ethnic minorities in Hong Kong as a subgroup in the population was declared in 2001; despite that, they were present even in the colonial periods (Postiglione, 2009). A specific need arose in 2004 for the legislative safety of ethnic minorities in Hong Kong. It was brought to the public attention dissemination of a consultation document that enforces against racial discrimination. In 2006 the bill was brought to the legislative council passed through the Race Discrimination Ordinance, and in 2009 it was fully enacted (Postiglione, 2009).
Hong Kong is home to different ethnic gatherings. However, little is known on a regular day to day life of the south and southeast of Asia within the ethnic society in Hong Kong. Race and ethnicity are generally examined in western social orders, and the field has been very much evolved as it is seen as of importance to their general public. In Hong Kong, there are numerous ethnic gatherings. However, conversations about them are uncommon, and the accessible writing on them inadequate, somewhat as a result of their small populace size. As indicated by the 2001 Population Census, 94.9% of Hong Kong's populace is ethnically Chinese, with the ethnic minorities comprising 5.1% of the populace (Hunt, 2008). The number of ethnic minorities in the registration totaled 343,950, and the entire population was 6,708,389 (Hunt, 2008).
Aim of the Study
While the interest by the RDO for the safety of ethnic outnumbered from injustice is broad, developing Literature shows relevant implications for ongoing education necessities for the ethnic outnumbered in Hong Kong (Choi, 2010). Many articles have further continued featuring this issue. While the focus has been on laying a legislative commission on the ethnic minority
concerning their requirements on racial discrimination, there has been little attention drawn to look at the ethnic minority higher education background. Their more top education backdrop relates to their further studies. Existing information is based on the ethnic minority teenagers that already enrolled in school. However, 2006 data analysis in the carried census recorded that a good number of these teenagers were not in school (Hunt, 2008). This realized in Hong Kong in 2011 by the equal opportunities committee (EOC) when they discovered that there is low participation of ethnic minority teenagers in higher secondary and post-secondary education in comparison to the Chinese majority ethnic teenagers. Therefore this study will aim to focus on the challenges the minorities face to further their knowledge leading to dropouts. Hence lay ethnic minority strategies can be built in Hong Kong.
The following research questions are what the study seeks to answer;
- What are the bounds behind achieving higher education within ethnic minority teenagers in Hong Kong?
- What is the nature of the underachieved Southeast Asian students?
- What strategies can be laid to raise the voices of ethnic teenagers in Hong Kong?
The Rationale for the Study
Gap in Literature
Much research has been written on ethnic minorities' challenges and dropouts in comparison to the developing countries and the developed ones. Carol (2012) contends that even though there is a lot of Literature globally concerning challenges and dropouts, factual sound, and logical motivated research in this field is insufficient (Carol, 2012). A review on Hunt (2008) on dropouts in the developed context recorded fewer studies than he had expected. Hunt acclaimed that focus was laid on bringing the child to school for the first instance. Challenges they encountered to further their higher education was not focused on which creates a gap of further research on the process of dropping out for ethnic minority students (Hunt, 2008)
Protection against Discrimination
While the current program and backing measures of the government in higher education towards the ethnic minority do not negate the requirements of RDO, nonetheless, stable demand for more effort has raised to eradicate the barriers and assert ethnic outnumbered more opportunities
(Bhowmik, 2013). EOC in 2011 summons that the presence of ethnic minority teens in higher secondary and post-secondary is extremely low relative to the majority teens, even though there is a policy of free education in Hong Kong for twelve years with nine years being compulsory (Bhowmik, Kennedy, & Hue, 2018). The EOC proposes that further exploration should be done with close attention to the issue. The study hence is a clear response in giving a better understanding of the problems that past research has not addressed.
The Focus of the Chapter
In this chapter, other researcher's work related to the present study is briefly reviewed. The reviewed studies help to design, thus study and avoid drawbacks. The conclusions of previous researchers are employed to substantiate and interpret the results of the present day. Focus on Literature that provides numerous contexts on higher education in Hong Kong ethnic outnumbered teenagers.
The proliferation and global migration portray the multicultural essence of various societies in distinct parts of the continent. According to the United Nations (2005), an estimated 191 million persons resided in foreign countries from their birth (Bhowmik, 2013). This as a double-up from the 1975 survey and has continued to rise every day until the current years (Connelly, Gube, & Thapa, 2012). OECD recorded that at the light of the twenty-first century, one resident out of five in a country, for example, Canada (18%), Australia (24%) and resident out of eight in countries such as the United States 13%, and Germany 13% are born from foreign counties (Bhowmik, 2013).
The ethnic minority society in china consists of just 6.4%, according to the census carried out in 2012 (Bhowmik, Kennedy, & Hue, 2018). Some of the ethnic minority societies in Hong Kong are mainly from the British colonial period who were brought either voluntary or non-voluntary from other colonies. A huge number of foreigners have been denied permanent residents in Hong Kong despite their stay in the country for more than seven years, which is a norm to other countries and states. The territory of Hong Kong has not yet signed the UN Refugee Convention. Therefore refugees have a hard time living in Hong Kong with extreme difficulties in their educational background (Bhowmik, Kennedy, & Hue, 2018).
Education for Ethnic Outnumbered in Hong Kong
Loper (2004) is among the original advocates for ethnic outnumbered teenagers in Hong Kong. Her research focused on finding out the concerns and challenges that the ethnic outnumbered students are experiencing in Hong Kong schools, and went ahead to examine the policies and practices in the education system for the minority concerning the equal opportunities law and international human rights (Loper, 2004). She conveyed fourteen interviews with ten teenagers and also included six parent or closely related persons of different 12 teenagers. She also examined school leaders, government representatives, and social laborers related to ethnic outnumbered education (Loper, 2004). Five problems were raised in her study concerning the ethnic outnumbered education in Hong Kong, which constituted of deficit in Chinese language opportunities involving teaching and learning, less connection to information of learning system, for example, school placements, inadequate learning places for the ethnic minority teenagers, little. At times no interaction between the ethnic outnumbered and the Chinese teenagers and lower eminence of accessible learning institutions for the ethnic outnumbered teenagers.
Loper's analysis of learning strategies and activities for ethnic minority students according to regional and worldwide human rights and fair opportunities laws implied the spread of immediate and intermediate discrimination (Loper, 2004). This setting needs innovative reasoning on policymakers to incorporate new discriminatory treatments for ethnic outnumbered teenagers.
Learning of South Asia, Ethnic Outnumbered Teenagers
The majority of the challenges and issues facing the ethnic outnumbered in loper's study indicated that south Asia was the most affected region. Ku, Chan, and Sandhu (2005) also capture identical challenges and issues precisely on ethnic outnumbered teens in southern Asia. They conveyed a survey to analyze day to day activities in school life, which included the relationship between teenagers themselves, teachers and teenagers, parents and teens, and learning environments (Ku, Chan, & Sandhu, 2005). In the study, they incorporated a questionnaire survey of two hundred students, with an in-depth interview of 20 students, all ranging between form four and seven. They all involved ethnic outnumbered groups from Nepalese, Indians, Filipinos and Pakistanis. The study recorded greater than half of the outnumbered teenagers had lesser learning opportunities concerning the Chinese teenagers, majorly due to lower school choices. Besides, it also reported that there were much-limited opportunities for post-secondary education levels. One-fourth of the recorded ethnic minority approved that their teachers did not treat them equally with the Chinese teenagers (Ku, Chan, & Sandhu, 2005). They also recorded that Chinese teens were given more attention by teachers than the ethnic minority and subjected to more and severe punishments. One-fifth of the ethnic minority reported having been disliked by the Chinese, with half of them saying to have rarely communicated with the Chinese students.
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