Essay Sample on the Plight of the Jews

Published: 2023-01-03
Essay Sample on the Plight of the Jews
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Racism Politics Discrimination Europe
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1148 words
10 min read

Arendt in his essay he is extremely sympathetic on the situation that the Jews find themselves in Germany and Europe where they are discriminated against as national interests are given priority and the minority rights of the Jews viewed as unimportant and disruptive matters (Arendt 12). Arendt views the German and European antagonistic views and stand against the Jews as a major problem that threaten the human rights of the individuals who are persecuted by the state and individuals and left without any protection. Arendt uses the plight of the Jews in Europe to voice against any identity based discrimination based on one's identity and voices against the use of religion, gender, nationality or even ethnicity as a basis for discrimination and exclusion (Arendt 18). Similarly, just like the Jewish protest and demand for international protection as minorities the same principles is important not only for the Jews but also Muslim brothers according to Arendt who were being persecuted by the state by denial of freedom of expression and being considered as second class citizens in their own country.

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Iqbal and Jinnah Specificity on Muslim Nationalism and the Place of Muslims in India

Unlike Arendt who call for the coexistence and protection of minority groups such as the Jews within existing states Iqbal approach is more radical and specific in that he believes that only through the creation of a Muslim state can the rights of Muslim believers be protected. As such, Iqbal is opposed to nationalism based on geographical aspects and instead seeks to support religious, cultural and traditionally attributed nationalism. According to Iqbal, Muslims should die for their religion and not for the national interests. Iqbal views nationalism as a form of materialism which is biased and Islamic nationalism is viewed with more certainty as a force that believers should fight to protect through the creation of a Muslim state. Iqbal philosophy is against Arendt's perception of the need for inclusivity and nationalism based on geographical boundaries where minorities are protected. Iqbal on the other hand, proposes a religious based nationalism where there is no demarcation between religion and national interests. Iqbal philosophy is similar to the oppressive European wave of nationalism that was cast against the Jews people by states purely by segregating against the minority by the majority who claim for favor and the source of the perception of reason within a nation. What Arendt proposes is the creation of laws within the state that assures the freedom and human rights of every cultural or religious group especially the minorities.

Jinnah has both Arendt philosophical views of coexistence of different groups within a national state and also possess radical views towards independence based on religion. Jinnah initially was an advocate for Hindu and Muslim coexistence in India which was not received well by many from different political divide (Saeed 20). Jinnah changed his approach to national based nationalism where laws protect the minority rights and freedom due to the continued antagonism of the Muslims by the majority Hindu administration. Jinnah led the Muslim leagues towards independence and the resolution to create a separate nation in Lahore which was to be composed of areas where there are majority Muslims in India with the aim of protecting their rights and freedoms. In both cases, Arendt philosophy of nationalism that is composed of laws and policies that ensure the freedom of the minorities is less desired by Jinnah and Iqbal who instead advocate for religion based nationalism.

Iqbal's Argument about the Global Muslim, and India as the Highest Realization of Islam

Iqbal believed that global Muslim should be determined by the Muslin states which should come together to contribute to the unity and stability of the Muslim world. Iqbal posits on the importance of the global connection between the independent Muslim states and the nation states in the muslim world that offer support and inspiration for cultural nationalism based on the religion and not the geographical location (Saeed 10). Iqbal encourages the creation of a league of Muslim countries that can offer significant support to the Indian Muslims who will be living in an independent state. In this case, Iqbal notes that global Muslim is the foundation of Islamic principles that go beyond individual preferences and control as a global principled religion. Based on Iqbal Muslim solidarity at the global stage he believed that an independent Muslim state was the solution to the challenges that Muslims were experiencing in India (Saeed 15). Iqbal argued that the interests of Muslims in India could be best met if they were able to establish a unified and independent state which could lead to internal balance and the opportunity for Islam to eliminate the imperialism imposed by Saudi Arabia by ensuring that states can be able to practice Muslim while at the same time practicing their cultural ideals (Saeed 20). As such, Iqbal believed that the demands of the Indian Muslims were not a threat to the Hindus and each group in India was entitled to free development and was against any community that had ills towards another in India. In this case, Iqbal believed that Muslims should have high respect to the customs, social institutions, laws and religion of other communities. Although previously a territorial nationalist championing for a united India in 1908 Iqbal changed his perception on nationalism and instead supported the freedom and separation of Hindus and Muslims in India to be free from the Indian political nationalism which was dominated by Hindu. In this case, Iqbal justifies two nations in a single territory by promoting cultural nationalism which was attributed by people with shared religious, linguistic, or racial values which was the case of Muslims in India who made a cultural nationality that could be united to ensure that policies and governance will be in their best interest.

Jinnah's ML 1935 Defeat Speech and Parity Principle Tone or Focus

Parity principle advocates for joint decision making by representatives of two groups which is what Jinnah demanded which is a means for collective bargaining. The focus was on the right of the Muslim majority provinces to secede (Saeed 23). In both cases, Jinnah's primary focus was towards the independence of the Muslims in the Muslim dominated provinces with the aim of fostering unity and the ability for Muslims to be able to request for independent rule and future determinism. After 1937, Jinnah was more convinced on the potential of inspiring Muslims to call for an independent Muslim state where Muslims will be free to express their religion without cultural dominance and negligence by the Hindu majority government. The focus in both cases is towards bringing together all Muslims in India to champion for independence which was achieved by the formation of Pakistan (Saeed 45).

Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah. "The Decline of the Nation-State and the End of the Rights of Man." (2009).

Saeed, Sadia. "Politics of Exclusion: Muslim Nationalism, State Formation and Legal Representations of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan." (2010).

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