Paper Example: Sixties Scoop

Published: 2023-03-08
Paper Example: Sixties Scoop
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Child abuse American history Sexual abuse Social issue
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1414 words
12 min read

The sixties scoop refers to enacted policies by the child welfare authorities in Canada o the early 1950s until the 1990s. It was in agreement with the federal government; many indigenous children were taken from their communities and families and were taken into the provincial child welfare systems. These children were either taken to adoptive families or non-indigenous foster, institutions and residential schools. They were often taken to the United States, other provinces, or even overseas. The term 'sixties scoop' was derived from the book by the name Native Children and child welfare system in 1983. This book was written after its author Patrick Johnston interviewed a British Columbian social worker who said that in the 1960s her colleague and her 'scooped' children communities of the first nation. This resulted in the welfare system acceleration in the excessive representation of indigenous children (Acevedo. et al,2017) This paper describes the action that led to the displacement of the scooped children from their birth families, they also lost their culture, identity, and language as indigenous people and hence be subjected to spiritual, emotional, physical and sexual abuse.

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The two survivors of the sixties scoop, namely Robert Commanda and Marcia Brown took a class action against the Canadian government in February 2009 where systemic assimilation...which was designed purposely for the destruction of first nations communities and families' was enacted as a policy.It was alleged that Canada delegated its responsibility towards indigenous persons in the wrong way the moment it agreed with Ontario to allow a child welfare program that gradually eradicated indigenous culture, language, society, traditions, customs, and children's spirituality. Six procedural decisions were acquired between the years 2010 and the year 2017, concerning primarily class certification.

Agreement settlement. The minister of northern affairs and Indigenous then Carolyn Bennett announced the interest of negotiation by the federal government on agreement on how to settle litigations for the Sixties scoop. The settlement proposed included all the registered Indians and Inuit persons or people eligible to be registered Inuit or Indians who were taken away from Canada their birth home from January 1, 1951, until December 31, 1991, and provided with the care of adoptive parents and non-indigenous foster and who were still alive on February 20, 2009.

Settlement and agreement terms.It provided a payment from the federal government.

  • a.$750 million was to be divided equally by the of claimants if there were more than 30,000 eligible class members submitting a claim.
  • b.If less than 20000 eligible class members were submitting a claim, $ 500 million should be divided equally according to the number of claimants to $50,000 maximum per person.
  • c.Every claimant should receive $25,000 in case of 20,000 to 30,000 eligible class members submitting a claim.
  • d.The individual payment was not to exceed $50,000.

There was a proposal by the federal government to fund a foundation with $50 million. Although further negotiations would be required to clearly state the objectives of the foundation, the settlement agreement states that the purpose of the foundation is for the benefit of the class members and to enable change and reconciliation hence providing particular access to commemoration, healing, and education activities.( al,2016)The settlement agreement provides for the specific legal fees payment, legal fee, and disbursements of $ 75 million agreed to be paid to the counsel representing the parties by the federal government. Four law firms are to receive the compensations as named hence no any other lawyer can charge a fee without prior approval from the federal court.

Court approval

Court approval is required for the settlement agreement. It states that the class action of Omnibus federal court must be certified by the federal court and also the settlement agreement to be approved as reasonable, fair and best interest for class members. Settlement and agreement must also be approved by Ontario super court concerning the Brown class action of class members.

The Settlement Agreement was approved on May 11, 2018, by Justice MICHEL Shore of Canada federal court. On the second day of hearings approval may 30, 2018, Justice Belobaba stated that additional issues should be worked on before the determination of the approval of the settlement agreement. (,2016) He also asked the involved settlement law firms to submit their billable work within seven days.

June 20, 2018, there was the approval of another settlement agreement apart from the provision of $75 million legal fees which he found it being unreasonable and excessive.

TRC Calls to Action

Upon the closure of the TRC given out of 94 Calls to Action to "restore the heritage of the inhabited schools and impose the course of Canadian reconciliation." The imposed proceedings call on all points of the federation to toil mutually to refurbish the harm-based inhabited schools and commence the process of resolution. The TRC is a constituent of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement. Its purpose is to notify all Canadians about the happenings in IRS( Abdulwazi. et al,2016)The orders will manuscript the legitimacy of survivors, kin, societies and anyone individually impacted by the IRS occurrence(Mckenzie. et al,2016) The calls to action were divided into two that is, legacy and reconciliation.


a)Child welfare

  • 1. We call upon the central, regional, territorial, and indigenous governments to entrust to dropping the number of native offspring in care by:
  • i.Monitoring and evaluating neglect searching.
  • ii. Providing sufficient funds to enable native societies and child-welfare associations to keep native relatives together where it is secure to do so and to maintain offspring in the ethnically appropriate surrounding, despite where they live.
  • iii. Assuring those social employees and others who carry out child-welfare analysis are properly sophisticated and skilled about the narration and effects of suburban schools.
  • 2. We call ahead the centralized regime, in partnership with the regions and terrains, to organize and bring out yearly news on the figure of native offspring (First Nations, Inuit, and Metis) who are in concern, evaluated with non-indigenous offspring, in addition to the basis for trepidation, the whole spending on protective and concern services by child-welfare organizations, and the efficiency of diverse interferences.
  • 3. We call ahead all points of the regime to fully execute Jordan's rule.
  • 4. We call ahead the centralized regime to endorse native child-welfare legislation that creates nationwide principles for native child hesitation and detention gear and consists of doctrine that:
  • i.Confirm the precision of native governments to create and keep up their child-welfare organizations.
  • ii. Necessitate all child-welfare organizations and magistrates to take the inhabited school bequest into the report in their verdict-making.
  • iii. Establish, as a significant main concern, an obligation that placements of native offspring into transitory and lasting care be ethnically appropriate.
  • 5. We call ahead the centralized, regional, territorial, and native governments to build up ethnically suitable parenting programs for native families.


  • 6. We call ahead the regime of Canada to annul Section 43 of the illegal system of Canada.
  • 7. We call ahead the centralized government to build up with native groups a dual tactic to get rid of educational and service gaps among indigenous and non-indigenous Canadians.
  • 8. We call ahead the centralized government to get rid of the inconsistency in centralized edification funding for primary states' offspring being sophisticated on assets and those primary states' offspring being sophisticated off assets.
  • 9. We call ahead the centralized regime to organize and publish yearly reports to evaluate bursaries for the edification of primary states' offspring on and off assets, in addition to educational and revenue achievements of indigenous grassroots in Canada weighing against non-native people.
  • 10. We call upon the centralized regime to sketch new native edification legislation with the full partaking and well-versed consent of indigenous peoples.
  • 11. We call ahead the centralized regime to provide enough funding to stop the accumulation of primary states students in search of post-secondary edification.
  • 12. We call ahead of the centralized, regional, territorial, and native governments to expand ethnically proper early childhood learning programs for native families.


Strang, J., McDonald, R., Tas, B., & Day, E. (2016). Clinical provision of improvised nasal naloxone without experimental testing and without regulatory approval: imaginative shortcut or dangerous bypass of essential safety procedures? Addiction, 111(4), 574-582.

Acevedo, D. N., Fogleman, C., & Daniel Ura, J. (2017). Peasants and Bankers: Education, Consumer Sentiment, and Presidential Approval. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 47(2), 230-244.

McKenzie, H. A., Varcoe, C., Browne, A. J., & Day, L. (2016). Disrupting the continuities among residential schools, the sixties scoop, and child welfare: an analysis of colonial and neocolonial discourses. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 7(2), 4.

Abdulwasi, M., Evans, M., & Magalhaes, L. (2016). "You're Native but You're not Native Looking": A Critical Narrative Study Exploring the Health Needs of Aboriginal Veterans Adopted and/or Fostered During the Sixties Scoop. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 11(2), 19-31.

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