This research is about Self-consolidating concrete (SCC), which is a flowing concrete mixture that is capable of consolidating its weight. SCC is the kind of high-performance concrete that can spread readily and able to fill restricted area and also reinforcement structures without employing mechanical consolidation and interfering in any significant separation of material properties. The research begins by the annotation of references used for the study, whereby they a brief description about each one of them is given in relation to the topic under review.
The study also outlines the materials for SCC, which include high powder that encompasses all excellent materials such as cement, ash and ground granulated blast of a furnace, silica fumes, etc. and small powder and moderate powder content, which gives a good basis for understanding SCC comprehensively.
The research further describes the several engineering advantages of using SCC, which include the fact that it flows into place virtually effortlessly is openly obvious to anyone who works with concrete. Another advantage is that SCC is considered to be environmentally friendly due to the material it uses, as it SCC eliminates the use of the vibrators that are used to compact the concrete since SCC can fill the formwork using its weight. The conclusion is that that SCC reduces the production time of the project as it also increases the efficiency and promotes the safe working environment; the future use of SCC is bright as many engineers adapt it.
Yu, Q., Tao, Z., & Wu, Y. X. (2008). Experimental Behavior of Performance Concrete Filled Steel Tubular columns. Thin Walled Structures, 46(4), 362- 370.
Work done by three men whose knowledge in industrial and system engineering is highly commendable. Lead by Dr Qingyu yang who currently serves at Wayne State University as the assistant to the professor in charge of the department of industrial and structural engineering. This paper seeks to find out the possibility of filling thin walled hollow structural steel (HSS) that are filled with quality Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) Structural engineers and researchers have over the years developed an interest in the use of high performance concrete. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) which is an example of the high performance concrete, has the ability to flow freely. This enables it to fill up formwork without the use of mechanical vibrations. Tests to prove the applicability of this concept were carried out, and a number of factors proved to influence its effectiveness and efficiency. The type of section used, how slender the hollow structures are and the eccentricity ratio of the load in question.
Uy, B., TAO. & HAN, L.H. (2011). Behavior of Short and slender concrete filled stainless steel tubular columns. JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL RESEARCH 67(3), 360-378
This paper seeks highlight a series of tests that were conducted on slender and short stainless steel tubes, filled with concrete and investigate how they react when under axial compression or axial forces. Short steel hollows that are empty were also part of the tests carried out, they were to be used to compare with the others. The results obtained proved the effectiveness of the composite columns which proved to be quite good and had the ability to be used widely as structurally. The research highlights indicate that stainless steel have a ductile characteristic, have a higher residual capability strength, a better approach is however required in order to make use of stainless steel effectively.
Tao, Z., Wang, z. B., & YU, Q. (2013). Finite Element Modelling of Concrete-Filled Steel stub columns under Axial Compression. Journal of Construction Steel Research, 89, 121-131.
This paper shows the importance of the finite element (FE) in concrete filled steel tubular columns. In the past finite element models have been created for CFST columns which have not worked effectively on a number of cases. With the current development in using of the high strength concrete, it has proved to be difficult for the present finite element models to be effective. This paper therefore brings out a wide range of experiments that are used to come up with refined finite element models that are able to simulate with concrete-filled steel tubular under axial compression. The new finite element model according to this paper is said to be working more effectively, accurately and is versatile and can be used effectively in modelling of CFST columns. High-strength concrete, thin walled tubes also work effectively with the new refined finite element. This paper puts across important strengths of the new finite element that is now being used for all CFST columns.
Nawy, E. G. (Ed). (2008).Concrete construction engineering handbook. CRC press.
This book is the only that merges engineering with construction. Written be Edward G. Nawy it is an advancement of the first edition that became a bestselling book in engineering. It covers a wide array of elements that are in relation with construction and concrete structures. The book is made up of new and updated topics which include ten new chapters. Every chapter is detailed with examples and has a good number of references. It discusses broadly on material behavior and long-term behavior. Performance qualities of constructed systems have also been discussed broadly.
Caldarone, m. a. (2008). High strengths concrete: a practical guide. CRS press.
Michael Caldarone is an experienced author and has vast knowledge in the concrete industry. He defined clearly the techniques used in process like design, producing and the use of strong concrete. The book outline the benefits that come with the use of high quality concrete. Structures like bridges, and buildings that make use of high-strength concrete will experience a greater life span and extended service. The book also comes with real life examples that help the reader relate with the current situation.
Shah, S. P., Akkaya, Y., & Bui, V. K. (2002 September). Innovations in micro structure, processing and properties. In proceedings of international congress: challenges of concrete construction conference (pp. 1-16)
This book gives a better understanding of the relationship between micro structure development, properties and performance and its applicability in the construction field. It mainly emphasizes on improvement of concrete used in constructions. Buildings in the 21st century should be stronger, more durable, and competitive, this will only be possible if the quality of concrete used will also improve. The book also talks about the importance of observing concrete used during the construction process, this makes the predictability of concrete construction easier.
Grunewald, S., & Walraven J. C. (2001). Parameter study on the influence of steel fibers and coarse aggregate content on the fresh properties of self-compacting concrete. Cement and concrete research, 31(12), 1793-1798
Grunewald and Walraven belong to the faculty of civil engineering in Delft University of Technology. The paper they worked on seeks to elaborate on the findings from an investigation that was done to differentiate the properties of the plain Self-compacting concrete from self-compacting concrete that has steel fibers. The authors discussed the appropriateness of the tests carried out, and the effect that the steel fibers had on the self-compacting concrete. The concrete was tested with four different types of steel fibers. This was done in order to find out at what point the workability of the self-compacting concrete is attained. Using of steel fiber in SCC help improve the properties of the concrete and the characteristics.
Dazko, J. A. (2012). Self-consolidating concrete: applying what we know. CRC Press, 2012
This book is the work of Joseph Daczko, an expert in concrete technology who is well knowledgeable in the concrete industry. This book offers guidance to practitioners on how to benefit from using self-consolidating concrete in our day to day production. The author also makes use of case studies and stories in order to demonstrate how to use self-consolidating concrete and get good results. The book shows the relationship between researching and practicing in the concrete industry as it gives a number of practical examples where SCC has been used successfully. This book is highly recommended especially for the new practitioners in the concrete industry.
Gurjar, A. H. (2004). Mix design and testing of self-consolidating concrete using Florida materials (No. Final report,).
This paper outlines the merits of self-consolidating concrete. The author describes it as highly flow able, meaning it easily flows to place. It highly consolidated as well, and can rarely separate. This make it noise pollution free and also saves on time and resources. This paper gives the outline on how mix cement, slag fly ash and the effects of high amounts of sand in self-consolidated concrete is also discussed by the author. The author also emphasized on the fact silica should not exceed 6%, slag should not exceed 40% in any self-consolidated concrete mixture. The author therefore been of great help in regards to mixing and testing of consolidating concrete.
Mehta, P. K. (2000) advancements in concrete technology. CONCRETE INTERNATIONAL-DETROIT-21, 69-76.
This work by Paul Kumar highlights the factors that have led to the advancement in concrete technology. The writer emphasizes that the use corrosion-inhibiting mixture lead to advancement in technology for the concrete industry.-this article critically evaluates a number of technologies s using the financial cost of materials used for construction, the durability aspect of the concrete, and how the materials used affect the environment. The article takes a comprehensive look at super plasticizing admixtures and their advantages and disadvantages. Technology is barely inevitable, and every sector requires a bit of technology for it to be able to be competitive. The concrete industry has improved greatly due to its advancement in technology.
Self-consolidating concrete can also be referred to as self-compacting concrete; this is a flowing concrete mixture, which can consolidate its weight. SCC is the kind of high-performance concrete that can spread readily and able to fill restricted area and also reinforcement structures without employing mechanical consolidation and interfering in any significant separation of material properties. This method was first produced in Japan in 1988; the main aim was to achieve concrete structure durability. Self-compacting concrete is used all across the world due to its advantages.
Unique characteristics include moderate viscosity, high deformability and low yield stress. Average thickness is necessary since it ensures equal suspension during transportation, a placement which eventually followed by concrete sets. This kind of concrete is used on heavily reinforced sections, places where the accessibility to vibrators is minimal.The construction industry which includes commercial development mainly prefers to use self-consolidating concrete.
Materials for SCC
Before going to the material used in SCC, it is important first to understand their types. High powder includes all excellent materials such as cement, ash and ground granulated blast of a furnace, silica fumes, etc. and small powder and moderate powder content. Various approaches describe the amount of cement paste that is used to make SCC irrespective of the characteristics of the granule. Recent years engineers have design test vessels which enable to determine the ratio of the aggregate and the required paste volume. A Certain amount of cement paste is needed to produce mix powder type SCC; here the significant amount depends on it...
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