|Essay type:||Rhetorical analysis essays|
|Categories:||United States Violence Terrorism Stereotypes|
The twentieth century was described as "the American Century" supporting egalitarianism and capitalism, the United States won the cold war and developed as the lone international world power in economic, technological, military, and cultural terms. The era of anti-Americanism begun after the twin 9/11 terrorist attack on September 2001 (Ashfaq and Adnan 150). The ideologies of anti-Americanism differ from extremism attacks against American citizens or histrionic upsurge in the international public negative defiance towards the United States and its guidelines. Currently, there are two primary categories of anti-Americanism murderous anti-Americanism and anti-Americanism "lite". The initial anti-Americanism relates to the power, policies of the terrorists who constantly plan to attack the United States. The second form of anti-Americanism concerns those who get involved in rigorous hatred campaigns on the streets and through the media to tarnish the reputation of the United States, which was previously a superpower, albeit do not seek its destruction. The rhetorical analysis essay will incorporate elements of appeal and fallacies to deconstruct the two papers.
The Application of Appeal to Analyze Both Texts
The pro-American feelings in Eastern Europe are grounded in gratitude towards Americans for backing their disenchanted aspirations during the cold war (David 114). However, they are also marred by skepticism, and mistrust of the European Union, which most of their nations have joined in recent years, or at least by a certain impression of the EU that critics associate with domination by France and Germany (David 114). In a nutshell, France, and Germany do not see America as a pluralistic, socialistic or superpower nation as they may see other nations in the EU.
On the issue of media, the American and European perspectives are contrasting. Most European nations are gradually turning away from power, or shifting beyond supremacy into a self-reliant world of laws and rules, multinational intercession, and collaboration (Ashfaq and Adnan 147). The United States in the meantime, stands mired in history, exercising power in the anarchic Hobbesian world where global laws and rules are untrustworthy, and where true security and the protection and protection of copious order still hinge on the custody and the use of military protection (Ashfaq and Adnan 147). The majority of people can reserve emotional feelings towards the United States. The American system has been applauded for several reasons, like its capitalist structure, its democratic mission, and its perceived land of hope and greatness. Finally, due to the perceived notion that America is a superpower, people often assess American policies and actions on their advantages, particularly on a standard quite different from their notions, and feelings towards the political object.
The rhetoric within the United States is occupied by dual situations that are either for, or in contrary to the military strike against Syria, and anti-Assad (Ashfaq and Adnan 153). These naive semantics are predestined to dissatisfy the popular Arabs and Muslims who do not support either side. Hollander also accentuates the role of the official anti-American propaganda in communist nations, which did not have the impact designed by the authorities on general feelings and attitudes (David 113). In his statement, he illustrates using the element of appeal how such propaganda and life under communist regimes contributed to a feeling of admiration of Western political and monetary systems and the acceptance of Western commodities (David 113). These attitudes became more robust the moment the decline of communist regimes highlighted the inefficiency of the Soviet system and made other European nations result in America. When he examines the actions, which led to the elimination of Soviet-type structure and the shift towards Western democratic systems. Hollander states the following: These unprecedented alterations may be construed not just as a rejection of political-economic structures negating those of the United States (David 114). However, there is also an increase to implied ratification of the political practices, social values, and cultural beliefs of the Western Europeans, and pre-eminently the United States(David 114).
The Use of Fallacy to Deconstruct Both Texts
This section will try to analyze the term anti-Americanism in two main fanatical views- stereotypical perspective, and cognitive view. The stereotypical perspective of anti-Americans explains the predominant declination of anti-Americanism in cultural studies. Anti-Americanism can also be described as an intuitive and emotional immediate reaction to any idea America holds in terms of personality traits comparable to ethnocentrism, and anti-semitism. The cognitive perspective perceives anti-Americanism as a reaction, basically grounded on American foreign policies, and actions.
The U.S. perception in Russian media debate was examined by different researchers on the grounds of the "self-other representation" (Ashfaq and Adnan 149). One of the popular Russian press critics contended that the Russian press depicted the U.S. as a bad nation and Russian as a righteous nation, peace-loving, and a friendly state (Ashfaq and Adnan 150). On the other hand, Ronald Reagan was viewed as a hypocritical, and a villain towards the Soviet Union. Bill Clinton was further depicted as a highly respectable president and an individual who would enjoy the public's support and popularity (Ashfaq and Adnan 150). The other dimension of anti-Americanization is connected to the relationship between Eastern European nations and the rest of Europe. The other dimension of anti-Americanization is connected to the relationship between Eastern European nations and the rest of Europe. It is also fantastically that after 1989, when most Eastern European nations were allowed to create associations with the West, they felt as if they were being ignored by the other European nations, and this propelled them to focus towards the United States of America as a model and source of support (David 117-118).
The other fallacy is centered on socioeconomic discourse. During the transition phase, the need to quickly restructure the previously communist structures paralleled with the low level of antagonism from groups as trade unions, for example, fast-tracked the adoption of harsh severity measures which imposed a speedy liberalization (David 119). This astonishing concept, Kovac argues was often mistaken by commentators for a programmatic, and general advancement of the spirit of American capitalism in the region. Although, he accentuates the strong effect of local prerequisites inspired the adoption of American-type economic models.
Anti-Americanism is a predominantly murky notion since it invariably combines antipathy towards what America does with what America is. Therefore, there is a fallacy that America has traits like any other prejudice in the sense that its holder "prejudges" the object and its activities apart from what normally emerges in reality. Just like the instance of prejudice, anti-Americanism too divulges much more about who perceive its rage and disdain. Therefore, this fallacy of the majority of European nations disliking America can also be related by the discriminative and segregation acts they level against the black community, Jews, LGBTQ community and further deam these groups as ethnic minorities. For example, the Medicare and Medicaid health care coverage has not fully incorporated the needs of the vulnerable minority communities who continue to struggle to access quality health care for chronic illness.
The paper has analyzed the two texts using the elements of appeal and fallacies. On the factor of appeal, Hollander uses the element of appeal to how much propaganda and life under communist regimes contributed to a feeling of admiration of Western political and monetary systems and the acceptance of Western commodities. Also, the rhetoric within the United States is engaged in binary situations they are either for or against the military strike against Syria, and anti-Assad. These naive semantics are predestined to disenchant the great majority of Arabs and Muslims who do not support either side. The fallacy of the majority of European nations disliking America can also be closely associated with the discriminative and segregation acts they level against the black community, Jews, and LGBTQ community and further label these groups as ethnic minorities.
Ashfaq, Ayesha, and Adnan Bin Hussein. "Superpower syndrome: The enduring debate on pro-Americanism and anti-Americanism in foreign media." Asian Social Science 10.3 (2014): 145-158.
David, Irina. "Scholars' Views on Eastern European Perceptions of America." Synergy 2 (2012): 112-120.
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