Report on Journey Through Mozambique: Post-Independence Challenges, Frelimo's Rule, and International Dynamics

Published: 2023-12-19
Report on Journey Through Mozambique: Post-Independence Challenges, Frelimo's Rule, and International Dynamics
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Politics Government Society
Pages: 3
Wordcount: 810 words
7 min read

Briefly describe the first post-independence government in your country.

Mozambique became independent under one-party rule, Frelimo, the newly independent government of President Samora Machel. After independence, Frelimo restructured itself as a Marxist Leninist Party in 1977 (Genoud, 2019). the party nationalized land and the professions of education, medicine, and law. The efforts of Frelimo to revive the shattered economy of the country were hampered by the destructive activities of Renamo, the dissident group of Mozambican, and its commitment to collective agriculture.

Trust banner

Is your time best spent reading someone else’s essay? Get a 100% original essay FROM A CERTIFIED WRITER!

What happened to the first post-independence government? How did it evolve over time? If applicable, how did it end? If it continued until 1985, what type of regime was it, and how did this change over time? How do the sources you read characterize the key features of this government? How did the government maintain power?

The Frelimo Party has ruled Mozambique as a one-party state since independence. It struggled through a long civil war since 1977 against the anti-communist insurgent forces of the Mozambican national resistance (Young, 2020). Renamo was used as a proxy to undermine the support of Frelimo for the militant nationalist organization in Mozambique. The Frelimo party managed to evolve by turning to the Soviet Union for funding, thus declaring itself as a socialist organization. The first post-independence government in Mozambique, Frelimo, is characterized by its non-racial stance although it was an African nationalist party. Its members included mulattoes and numerous whites. The party promoted the struggle not just for independence but also for developing a socialist society.

The Frelimo government managed to maintain power by firmly establishing itself in the rural regions. The press photographs were used to document and transmit the political ideologies of Frelimo to the general public. The party assumed control of abandoned photographic equipment and commercial studios. It then used legal and technical distinctions to create a group of photographers who traversed the country photographing its leader at the grassroots. These amplified the more favorable political strategies to the people, thus gaining support.

If other governments have come to power, how and when did they come to power? Who are they? What kinds of regimes did they institute (e.g., military, democratic, civilian autocracy, etc)? How do the sources you read characterize the key features of these ruling governments? How did these governments maintain power?

The Frelimo party has ruled Mozambique since independence.

What have been the most important political events during this time period?

The most important political events during the period are the attempt to bring about a lasting peace. Frelimo strengthened its efforts to maintain stability in the country even though it faced immense developmental challenges. Mozambique National Resistance, Renamo, and its backers waged the subsequent war of destabilization in the country. Frelimo asserted its vision of national unity by implementing a range of measures to limit opposition and gain control over the population. This was achieved through the swift consolidation of a one-party rule. The liberation movement was formally transformed into a Marxist Leninist Vanguard party at Frelimo's 3rd Party Congress in 1977 with the mission of leading, organizing, orienting, and educating the general public (Gupta & Rodary, 2017).

Were there any important international interventions?

The efforts to find the lasting peace in Mozambique had remained primarily out of the Mozambicans hands. The steps to consolidate the peace depended on long-term international interventions. The international interventions made the situation change since the country was in a desperate state, causing millions of the Mozambique people to perish. The essential political and military support was provided to the Frelimo party by the Eastern European countries and the Soviet Union, thus constructing socialism in the nation, and making it a non-racial government.

Thinking about the post-independence experience in your country, what have been the most critical factors shaping this experience?

The lack of reconciliation made it difficult the construct a democratic political culture in Mozambique. The development of a dynamic civil society is shaping the post-independence experience. The hope for continued democratization and preservation of peace is due to the growing social criticism the genuine fear of new armed conflicts and the weariness of war in Mozambique (Brock, 2016). The existence of critical scrutiny of both the opposition and the government through the press gives the self-censorship that is commonly lessening. Also, there is an increase in the organizations and actors working to develop democracy in society. Institutions have been created to raise the voices against crime and corruption as well as defend human rights.


Gupta, P., & Rodary, E. (2017). Opening-up Mozambique: Histories of the present. African Studies, 76(2), 179–187.

Brock, J. (2016, January 23). Fearful Mozambicans flee as old foes clash. Reuters.

Genoud, E. M. (2019, October 21). Tracing the history of Mozambique's mysterious and deadly insurgency. The Conversation.

Young. (2020, September 21). History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide.

Cite this page

Report on Journey Through Mozambique: Post-Independence Challenges, Frelimo's Rule, and International Dynamics. (2023, Dec 19). Retrieved from

Request Removal

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the SpeedyPaper website, please click below to request its removal:

Liked this essay sample but need an original one?

Hire a professional with VAST experience!

24/7 online support

NO plagiarism