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It was in 1964 when the Palestine Liberation Organization was founded with the aim of liberating Palestine using armed struggle, and most of its violence was intended for the Israel civilians (Ahmad, 1975). It is regarded as a sole legal representation of the people of Palestine with about 100 states where it holds diplomatic relations and acted as an observer of the United States from 1974. According to Israel and the United States, PLO was a terrorist organization until the 1991 Madrid Conference (Hamid, 1975). The PLO recognizes the rights of the Israelites to exist in peace and even acknowledged 234 and 338 UN Security Council Resolutions and opposed violence and terrorism.
Ideologies of PLO
In 1964 when PLO was founded, it formulated its ideology in Palestine National Covenant. The document was mainly dedicated for the restoration of the homeland of Palestinian, and it had no reference to religion (Ahmad, 1975). In 1968, the document was replaced with a revised version, and up to 1993 the organization mainly promoted armed struggle. After signing the Oslo Accords, diplomacy and negotiation were regraded as official policy. Furthermore, PLO's core ideology was based on the belief that Zionists unjustifiably expelled Palestinians from Palestine. They created a Jewish state to have Jewish and historical ties with Palestine. PLO demanded the return of Palestine refugees in their homes (Hilal, 1993). The views were expressed in the National Covenant, and the Charter's article 2 stated that Palestine and its boundaries in an indivisible unit to mean that the Jewish people had no place there. PLO regarded Palestine individuals as Arabs as it was Arab league offshoot. Article 3 stated that the Palestine Arab individuals have a legitimate right to their homeland and determining their destiny after getting their nation's liberation according to their will.
Amid first Zionist Congress of 1897, Jewish patriots chose to build up the World Zionist association. The association propelled the supposed Basel program, which pointed of resettling the Jewish individuals in Palestine. The years 1899 and 1902 were the years witness the principal strains between the Arab and Jews in Palestine's Tiberias area (Guarino, 2012). The Jewish migration to Palestine proceeded until the break of the First World War, which denoted another time for the making of a Jewish state. As the Ottoman powers surrendered to British in 1917, the British issued an announcement of their help for the foundation of a Jewish national home in the district. Following the control of whole Palestine by the British powers, a patriot response started to heighten against the colonialists and the Jewish nearness in the Arab lands. The Arab political activity started in the principal long periods of the British command. Following quite a while of nearby conflicts and uproars by the Arab nationals, the primary present-day Palestinian ideological group Istiqlal (freedom) was framed in 1932 (Guarino, 2012). The Arab Higher Committee and the Palestinian political administration have just been proposing the Arab League since 1936 that Palestinian Government must be set up. At long last in September 1948, the Arab League announced the All-Palestine Government (APG) (Hukumat 'Umum Filastin) in October 1948. The Palestinian National Council announced the freedom of Palestine as a majority rule sovereign state with its leader Ahmad Hilmi 'Abd al-Baqi. The announcement did not have an accord among the Arab states. The King 'Abdallah of Transjordan was against this acknowledgment and later the All Palestinian Government was prohibited from the gatherings of Arab League. Therefore, the APG turned into a disappointment and was never ready to form into a political substance. The foundation proceeded until the passing of al-Baqi and was broken up later on. Palestinian substance (al-kiyan al-Filastin) again turned out from the activity of the United Arab Republic on 29 March 1959 amid the 31st session of the Arab League Council. This time the Egyptian activity by Gamal Abd al-Nasser denoted the restoration of Palestinian element. For Moshe Shemesh, the acknowledgment of Palestinian substance was a recorded point that demonstrated the Egyptian strategy for the arrangement of the Palestinian issue.
The main goals on a Palestinian political element by the Arab states were issued in January 1964 amid the primary Arab summit (Guarino, 2012). In February 1964, after the passing of al-Baqi, Ahmad al-Shuqairi was named as the leader of All-Palestine Government by the Arab League. This was the primary employable choice which was taken both collectively and at the most elevated Arab level on the subject of Palestinian substance since Egypt's drive on this inquiry in March 1959. This choice turned the topic of the Palestinian substance, and furthermore the foundation of organizations for Palestinian portrayal (Hamid, 1975). Following this choice, Al-Shuqairi picked up the help of Nasser to open up camps to set up a Palestinian armed force and arranged a required enrollment law. The law empowered the All-Palestinian Government to gather troopers from Gaza to frame an obstruction constrain. Al-Shuqairi in May 1964 exhibited a draft to the Palestinian National Covenant to set up the Palestinian Liberation Organization (Guarino, 2012). During the Second Arab summit in September 1964, Arab states welcomed the foundation of PLO as the premise of the Palestinian element and as a pioneer in the aggregate Arab battle for the freedom of Filastin.
When the PLO draft constitution was drafted in 1963, it stated that all Palestinians are the organization's natural members. Unfortunately, in the 1970 Black September event, thousands of Palestinians got expelled from Jordan, and this forced the leadership of PLO to be stationed in Lebanon (Basmisirli, 2016). During this time, the Palestinians commenced living in refugee camps which further acted as a source of conscription and recruitment since Guerillas controlled Palestinian's in the camp social life. Moreover, they imposed taxes, had well-established courts, and revised school curriculum run and funded by the United Nations works agency and relief for the Palestinian refugees. PLO recruitment process relied on the propaganda of a created image. The main aim of developing the heroic images was to face the difficult conditions presented after 1967. The created imagery was essential for the required manpower (Basmisirli, 2016). The Karameh battle where Israeli attacked Palestinians in Jordan also made young Palestinians join PLO ranks.
In 2017, the group had about 6,000 members.
The leadership of Palestinian bases on its legitimacy regarding the success and role of armed struggle. It encouraged the use of authoritarian leadership in controlling the people and having populist policies. The first leader of PLO was Amad Shuqayri who was Gamal Abdel Nasser's Egyptian president close friend, and during this time Egypt mainly influenced the group. In 1969, the organization signaled the need to emerge independent, and they chose Yasir Arafat who was Fatah's leader s the Executive Committee Chairman of PLO (Basmisirli, 2016). He held this position until his death in 2004. Also, the Palestinian leaders can be characterized in four categories including religious leadership, Palestinian personalities, independent nationalists, and PLO leadership local member. After Arafat's death, Mahmoud Abbas who was the secretary-general became PLO's new chairman.
The PLO received arms from several supplies though it only depended on a few main arms exporters. PLO possesses some of the U.S equipment such as 105mm howitzer that was gotten from the Lebanese army that bought it from the United States (Morrison, 1984). The People's Republic of China supplied PLO with arms. They were the main suppliers of arms to PLO in the 1970s. The Soviets have also played an essential role in manufacturing and delivering arms to the Palestinians (Morrison, 1984). The primary and important source of PLO's sophisticated arms is the Soviet Union. On the other hand, Libya and Algeria play as middlemen in supplying PLO with arms.
The Palestinian groups created financial backups for their organizations even before the founding of PLO in 1964. Fatah which is the largest Palestine required its members to give the organization half of their wages (Morrison, 1984). The PLO had Palestine National Fund which aided it in its operations. The chairman and board of directors managed the funds. The sources of the funds included fixed taxed that were earned by all the Palestinians who lived in Arab nations and the respective governments collected them. the other source of funding was from Arab people and government. The Arabic nations provided financial aid to the Palestinians to support PLO (Morrison, 1984).
The main targets of PLO were the Israelites. They wanted to destroy Israelites as while liberating Palestine.
Do you consider them successful?
The liberation was successful in a expressing their interests of getting their land back, the operation was unsuccessful as they were misplaced.
Ahmad, N. (1975). THE PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION. Pakistan Horizon, 28(4), 81-115. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41394763
Basmisirli, Hasan. (2016). Palestinian Liberation Organization: An in-depth analysis.doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.10737.48484.
Guarino, G. (2012). The Palestine Liberation Organization AND Its Evolution As A National Liberation Movement. Rivista della Cooperazione Giuridica Internazionale.
Hamid, R. (1975). What is the PLO?. Journal of Palestine Studies, 4(4), 90-109.
Hilal, J. (1993). PLO institutions: the challenge ahead. Journal of Palestine Studies, 23(1), 46-60.
Morrison, M. E. (1984). Understanding the PLO (Doctoral dissertation).
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