Nursing Epidemiology - Free Essay Example

Published: 2023-07-23
Nursing Epidemiology - Free Essay Example
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Medicine HIV Community health Nursing care Essays by pagecount
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1350 words
12 min read

Epidemiology refers to the study of diseases in the population of humans on when, how, and where they take place. The discipline conceptualizes the incidence, rate, and mode of distribution of a particular condition along with the possible control measures that relate to individual health. In this regard, the communicable disease that I would conduct nursing research is Tuberculosis. The paper will, therefore, provide a profound description of the disease that will, in turn, bolster individual understanding of how to manage the condition due to the epidemiologic knowledge

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Description of the Disease

Tuberculosis is among the most significant public health threats that continue to affect vulnerable populations globally. The communicable disease, commonly known as (TB) is an illness caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Kornblatt et al., 2017). The underlying policies availed by various public health experts at different levels have a long-term impact on the health of the population. The disease is also triggered by pre-existing conditions in the body, like the presence of HIV (Kornblatt et al., 2017). The virus weakens individual immunity, which in turn makes such victims more susceptible to the disease.

Mode of Transmission

It mostly affects the lungs of the infected. The disease is spread from one infected individual to the other through the air when they sneeze, cough, or spit, and the germs spread to the air where the other person inhales and contracts the disease (Kornblatt et al., 2017). The rate of transmission depends on the distance between two people. Besides, it depends on the underlying conditions that one has. Besides, shearing certain personal belongings like clothes since the TB bacteria may be found on such surfaces.

Another factor that facilitates the transmission of the disease is the lack of ventilation in rooms. Once the TB bacteria are relayed into the air, the question of whether they will remain still or move out depends on the available ventilation. In a stuffy environment, the bacteria will remain in the air, which will, in turn, facilitate the transmission of the disease (Kornblatt et al., 2017). Therefore, poor ventilation is another facilitator of TB spread from one person to another.

Also, the transmission occurs between adults to children. Younger children have weaker immunity, which makes them more susceptible to the situation. However, contemporary society has presented newer ways of approaching many.


The common symptoms of TB include coughing, night sweat, weight loss, and fever. TB is curable and preventable if the right measures are employed. From the measures employed by the WHO, there has been a decline in the number of TB cases even though there are still many deaths incurred as a result of the disease. The dropping number has been recorded by the reduced amount of new patients in various health facilities (Kornblatt et al., 2017). Besides, most people no longer exhibit the serious signs of TB that they showed in the past before an actual medication.

Symptoms of the condition determine the type of TB that one exhibits. There are two types of TB illness which include latent and active TB. Latent TB is whereby a person has been infected by the bacteria, but they are not yet sick; hence cannot contract the illness. In this stage, the symptoms are always minor and cannot be easily identified. It is approximated that about a quarter of the population has latent TB. Active TB is regular in individuals with weak immune systems that might have been affected by severe illnesses. Active TB displays in-depth signs of bacterial infection in the body.

Determinants of Health Affecting the Disease

Individuals with compromised immune systems like those living with HIV, diabetes, and malnutrition have a higher risk of contracting the illness. The vulnerable groups that are at risk of suffering the bacteria include older people in their most productive years, and their immune systems may be weak, failing to fight the bacteria. Individuals with malnutrition are three times more at risk of contracting the illness. In the WHO 2018 report, there were about 2.3 million TB cases that developed as a result of poor nutrition (Kornblatt et al., 2017). The problem of poor nutrition has a long-term impact of weakening one's immunity. The victims of TB victims require intensive care, but some of the families may fail to avail of the essential support to the patients. Incorporating certain medication practices would trigger a fall of medical prices.

Similarly, mass programs and campaigns regarding the post have facilitated the inception of multiple initiatives that primarily address the sustainability issues regarding the control of TB. The reputational risk associated with the condition requires prior management. It applies anti-bacterial fungi along with various strategies to mitigate the direct impacts of the disease and the frequency at which the disease is becoming common (Allen et al., 2019). Also, the risk can be identified and managed if it reaches a point when the human body stops responding due to weak immunity. It is because the victims are guaranteed support for basic needs with other family members hence making them feel more comfortable.

People with HIV are most likely to suffer from active TB as compared to HIV-malicious individuals. This is because TB and HIV form a lethal combination whereby each illness activates the other's progress. The WHO report indicates that nearly 250,000 individuals succumbed to HIV and TB combination (Carlson et al., 2018). Also, there were 860 000 new cases related to TB and HIV-positive cases (Carlson et al., 2018). Africa and Asia are among the most affected by this case, with 72 percent being from Africa (Carlson et al., 2018). The underlying weather condition and nature of life have greatly contributed to the frequency of such diseases.


According to the WHO, over 90 percent of adults in developing countries have recorded TB cases and deaths. Thus, the intensity of the illness has been proven by various health-related. Besides, children below the age of 14 are also at a high risk of contracting the illness, and approximately one million children were reported to have suffered from the illness with more than 200,000 deaths (Carlson et al., 2018). Below the speculated age, the child's immunity is not strong enough to withstand the bacteria. Therefore, younger individuals have increasingly been attacked by the disease, which has even led to higher death rates.

The report also indicates that individuals infected with HIV are more vulnerable to developing active TB cases. Also, drug and alcohol users are on the list of the most prevalent individuals to contract the illness. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption increase the risk of suffering from TB by a factor of 3.3 and 1.5, respectively (Carlson et al., 2018). The WHO reports that over 0.83 million and 0.85 million new TB cases globally were a result of alcohol use and smoking, respectively (Carlson et al., 2018).

Treatment and Complications

There have been various innovations that have helped in the treatment of the illness. The disease is curable and treatable if the patients follow the given directives and health guidelines. Also, the ability to get treated depends on the state of the patient and the level at which the condition has reached. Active TB is treated by the 6-month administration of 4 antimicrobial drugs. The patients only have to keep up with the treatment and act according to the health worker's instructions. The prescription effectively provides permanent control for the disease. The WHO report indicated that there had been an estimation of over 58 million TB treatments through the right diagnosis and treatment between the years 2000 and 2018. It, therefore, means that the possibility of getting healed from the condition is extremely high provided that one follows the doctor's prescriptions keenly.


Allen, D., & Hardin, P. K. (2019). Discourse analysis and the epidemiology of meaning. Nursing Philosophy, 2(2), 163-176.

Carlson, M., McLaughlin, J., & Castrodale, L. (2018). Update on Screening and Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection: Treating TB Infection to Prevent TB Disease.

Kornblatt, E. S., Goeppinger, J., & Jagger, J. (2017). Epidemiology in community health nursing education: Fit or misfit?. Public Health Nursing, 2(2), 104-108.

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