Stress causes anxiety, depression, and inability to cope among individuals, leading to poor health and premature death. Prolonged insecurity and lack of a supporting framework of friendships lead to long lasting psychological effects that will negatively affect the health status of an individual. The more marginalized a community is, the more prevalent the psychological problems. When we are exposed to emergency situations, our system triggers hormonal excretions that prepare us to flee or fight. A frequent triggering of these responses diverts energy intended for important physiological processes in the body vital for the maintenance of a healthy state in the body. If these responses become too common, the subjects become susceptible to a wide range of conditions that include hypertension and diabetes. To maintain a healthy psychological state, it is imperative that the conditions prevailing in schools, the office and all other institutions should offer security to all concerned parties. The institutions should promote a culture that encourages participation of all people and appreciating each and every individual. Such environments foster better health compared to those that exclude, disregard and misuse individuals. Government policies also need to focus on the psychological needs of the citizens and not just the material needs as it is the norm ("Social Determinants of Health | Healthy People 2020", 2016). The government can meet the psychological needs of its populace by offering help and support to young families, reduce incidences of marginalization and discrimination in the community, encourage community participation and deal with material and financial insecurities.
The early life of each individual has long lasting impact on their entire lifespan. The foundations of an adult life are laid before birth and during early childhood. Lack of emotional support at this stage coupled with poor growth lead to poor cognitive development, and a lifelong risk of poor physical health. Poor conditions prevailing at pregnancy can lead to a chain of events ranging from poor development of the fetus, maternal stress, incidences of smoking or drug abuse by the mother and lack of exercise. To address these issues, it is imperative that provide access to and improve the educational standards so as boost maternal and infant heath status in the long run. The provision of good nutrition coupled with health education programs before and during pregnancy as well as during infancy will go a long way in boosting the growth and development of the infant as well as its mother and reduce the likelihood of prevalence of diseases. Parental relations with their children should also be bolstered by frequent interactions, good support in schools and communication. Risks to early childhood are more pronounced among marginalized and poor communities and can be improved by improving the education levels of the parents and children alike. Preventative health care should also be introduced before first pregnancies as well as pre and postnatal care for the mothers and babies ("The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 2011 (AIHW)", 2016).
In most instances, life is short when its quality is relatively poor. Poverty and social exclusion have a major impact on health and premature death, and the conditions that foster poverty are commonly pitted against some specific social groups. The lack of the most basic life needs continues to prevail in the world, mostly among those who live in the streets, the unemployed, refugees and marginalized minority groups. These groups of people are at the greatest risk of dying prematurely. On the other hand, there are those who have access to their basic needs but cannot meet other necessities to elevate them to other spheres of life; they cannot access good education and transport that enables human beings to participate fully in all aspects of life. This exclusion social exclusion leads to health risks as well as premature death. It results from marginalization hostility, racism, and unemployment. The longer the period that individuals get stuck in disadvantaged circumstances, the greater the risk of exposure to health problems ("Theory in a Nutshell", 2016). To deal with this problem of social exclusion, it is imperative that citizens are cushioned through the installation of minimum wage bills and guarantees for minimum incomes. Legislation aimed at protecting minority groups from discrimination should also be established as well as removal of barriers to access to social services.
The working environment
A stressful working environment predisposes employees to the greater risk of disease. Individuals with more control over their working environment are generally healthier than their opposite counterparts. Having a job is a good health boost as opposed to having no job. There is, however, more to having a job that affects the health of the employees: the style of management prevailing at the work place and the social relations created have a huge impact on the health status of the individuals. Stressful work increases the chances of diseases and premature death. Perceptions of inadequate rewards for ones work output have been linked to increasing risks of cardiovascular diseases. Involvement of employees in decision-making at the work place is important to improve their productivity and general health status. The institution of good management in the organization will also help in improving the well-being of the employees ("WHO | What are social determinants of health?", 2016).
Job security is an important ingredient in improving the wellbeing and health of an individual. Research has shown that unemployed individuals, as well as their families, suffer a greater risk of premature death. This can be linked to the psychological effects associated with unemployment as well as financial lack. The health effects begin when people develop anxieties and insecurities that their jobs will not be guaranteed. To mitigate the health effects of unemployment, the government should efficiently manage the economy so as to absorb shocks associated with the economic cycle. Educational and training standards should also be revamped to equip the citizens with the skills required in the work place ("Why Australian Governments Need to Respond to the Social Determinants of Health - Australian Hospital & Healthcare", 2014).
Addressing the social determinants of health will be of great help both for the Australian economy as well as...
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