|Type of paper:||Research paper|
|Categories:||Politics International relations Europe|
The Introduction to what Reginionalism is all about
Background building up to the period of the cold war, regionalism and the development of the policies
Issues concerning the study
Scope explored in conducting the Study in question to the point of completion
Why it is important to study concepts in regionalism and the European Neighborhood Policy
The problem of the study as was stated throughout.
Inquiries conducted from the research in question
Aims and objectives in conducting the study
Limitations of the study
Information from Literature with respect to the theory of formalism and the Understanding of European Neighboring Policy
Theories used in the development of the concept of regionalism and the ENP Policy and the cold war patterns.
The theories of Functionalism and Neofunctionalism as proposed by Haas and companions in the development of a viable regionalism theory
What happened in regionalism immediately after the cold war as opposed to regionalism before the Cold War took place.
The Issues that come up in the concept of regionalism as the main ideas in understanding its development
Levels of World Systems
The Neighborhood Policy that had been adopted by the European Union
Conditionality as a practice understood under the European Neighborhood Policy in how member countries deal with each other
The practice of democracy as seen in the European Neighborhood Policy.
The modes of governance that ENP countries try to use in executing their mandate by law.
Discussions on the further issues that can be found under the European Neighbrhood Policy in terms of real policies and opinion,
The policy that had been formulated by the european
Then deamacations amd boundaries that exist as a result of globalization and the the formulation of the ENP Policy.
The Future of the EN Policy
The Effect of Internal Uncertainty in External Stalemate
IS REGIONALISM IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA BENEFICIAL TO THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICIES?
Chapter one: Introduction
Regionalism is a sociological theory concerned with the practice of a system that tends towards regional practices as opposed to the central systems engaged in the administration of affiliation in the economic, cultural and political contexts. The post-cold war period was set off by the disintegration of the old Russia (Soviet Union) on December 26, 1991. The period during the cold war was defined squarely by the confrontation that took place between the US and old Russia which had emerged as the strongest side after the World War. After the cold war, a new regionalism movement has developed with increased diversity and multi-dimensional with emphasis on aspects such as the social, political and culture which involve a host of actors and levels where cooperation takes place; diverse groups have been accommodated having different sizes of states, systems of governance and economic systems which bridge the divide between the south and the north. The question that can be asked and answered is whether the policies adopted by the European Neighboring Policy are regionalist. From this question, it can be concluded that the European Neighborhood Policy is regionalist based on various reasons.
The era of the Cold War was characterized by the identification of regions through cartography. However, the European Community had developed a region which went beyond what traditionally determined the geographical proximity of that time and developed its elements of regions. These regions stood out as what shaped the regional identity of Europe by giving it a wider range of factors beyond geography. These determinants that have come up are regional economic integration, the regional political integration determinant, the legislative normative convergence and normative socialization. The result was a poor theorization of regions that had come up during the Old Regionalism campaign. Despite this, there were regions which had proper distinctions that placed them beyond others. Hass developed a neo-functionalist theory that was a counter-example to the systematic theory. Hass claimed that the theory was in search of the spillovers and integration but came into contact with dictators and decay. Disagreements existed as to which method best works in identifying viable instruments that define regions and admit fresh members to regions that are already in existence. The use of a geographic density in defining an established region was essential to the process. Additional variables were also admitted in the definition process to add some aspects to the process.
The primary system overlay the regional system using a single-dimensioned process that affected the evolution of the future power establishments of regional integration. The settings that regional security frameworks established after the advent of the Cold War were the African, the Middle East, East Asia and the Southern Part of Asia. The regions began to possess a relative form of autonomy that generated the dynamics of each region and the process of integration was an attempt to bring stability to the turbulent domestic arena when decolonization had just begun.
The scope of the study
This research project was done to investigate the effects of regionalism in the post-cold war era. The study focused on the European Union and the context of Eastern and Southern neighborhoods.
Statement Of Problem
The era of post-cold war era was characterized by regionalism and formation of economic blocks in eastern and southern Europe. The regionalism has benefited some regions while in other instances it has been a disadvantage. This research project seeks to understand the effects of regionalism in the post-cold war era using the case study of Eastern and Southern neighborhoods.
This research project seeks to answer the following research questions at the end of this study:
What is regionalism?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of regionalism to the southern and eastern neighborhoods?
What are the characteristics of regionalism after the cold war era?
Aims And Objectives
The primary aim of this research project is to examine regionalism in the post-cold war era in the southern and eastern neighborhoods. To establish the primary objectives, the researcher will examine the characteristics of regionalism during the post-cold war era and the benefits and demerits associated with regionalism.
Limitations Of The Study
In this research project, secondary data was used to examine regionalism. Therefore, there might be data bases since the researcher depended on the already collected data.
Chapter Two: Literature Review
In this chapter, the researcher will use data done on the previous research and various theories on regionalism in the post-cold war era. Additionally, the researcher will highlight the weaknesses and strengths of the past research to understands regionalism in depth. Lastly, the researcher will highlight the contribution of this research to the existing literature on regionalism.
The Theory of Regionalism and Patterns that Featured in Regionalism during the Post-Cold War Time
Functionalism and Neofunctionalism
The theory of neofunctionalism was introduced by Haas who has been regarded as its father. The theory was formulated to explain the integration of countries in Europe. The theory and its antecedent theory of functionalism were products that came out of the integration of Europe and the experienced following the war. The idea of uniting Europe historically stems back to the 20th century but the modern form came out of the European Coal and Steal Community in the year 1951. The organization later translated into the European Economic Community by the Roman Treat of 1957.
The design of the original theory was meant to offer a normative explanation for the mechanism used in establishing the ECSC that ensured a coexisting peace that transcended national boundaries. The pursuit of an active peace was the driver of the idea and not peace which would lead to quiet separation of nations through a static and strategic view in which peace has been viewed in the past. There was need to begin viewing peace from a social perspective.
The claim made by the functionalist theory was that cooperation courtesy of governments in creating technical task-oriented welfare agencies was able to bring people across their borders. The people were meant to start thinking in a manner which was inclined away from their respective nations for the sake of technical cooperation.
Though functionalism was relegated to the formation of institutions which had no political outlook, neofunctionalism used it as a foundation to eliminate the artificial separation in the sight of politics from economics. It did this by including the notion that there were functional spillovers. The suggestions by players such as Haas led to the conclusion that an increase in the exchanges across borders and cooperation in some technical areas. This included the production of coal and steel which would increase transnational interdependence. The result would be the creation of functional spillovers in other established realms by allowing the process of integration to have a driving force through its own steam. Haas noted that if certain tasks by organizations had an intimate relationship with aspirations held by a group of the nation, the result would be integration even in cases where the actors facilitating the development may not consciously work to make such a result.
The Post-Cold War Order of Regionalism
The era after the Cold War does not recognize the input of the systematic level as a chief catalyst of regional systems that existed and the regional order. The old regionalism that took place when the Cold War was on simply reproduced the hegemonic patterns of Cold War in the areas. At the point of inter-regional relations, a region's behavior has an impact on what happens in other regions. The regionalization process that took place in the Asian region specifically in the Northeast and southeast is more of a response to the bloc building that occurs in other regions. The regions here are the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The unilateral pressures coming from the primary system cannot be resisted because of the strategic capabilities that have been developed by the regional order, regional systems and subsystems.
The concept of regional order can be viewed as compartmentalization of particular engagements with orientation and instrumentation that has been directed towards an accommodative strategy. The strategy in question aims at accommodating interests and selecting objectives.
On the other hand, world order has a different disposition from the placement of the regional order. In the world order, the accommodation process is different. The reason is that the accommodation process does not involve covenants to loop the actors and facilitate their dealings and participation in the arena created. The actors involved in putting up the security for the region had the same kind of influence. In more often situations, the foundation system does not have the keenness required to intervene and influence the settlements provided by the regional institutions as was the case in the period of the Cold War. This systematic behavior is what is known as unipolar passivism. Unipolar passivism is a short period that occurs immediately after the period of the Cold War. This period is characterized by the hegemonic system's unwillingness to take control of the remotest areas of the system and engage in an activity that ensures f...
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