Essay Sample on International Law and Organizations

Published: 2024-01-14
Essay Sample on International Law and Organizations
Essay type:  Rhetorical analysis essays
Categories:  Organizational behavior Business law International business
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1824 words
16 min read

International law is defined as rules that states adhere to in dealings between them (Jacob et al. pg. 1007). Three clear legal procedures include international law identified, public international law that governs the relationship between international entities and sovereign states, which is a private international law that addresses conflict questions in terms of jurisdiction. Lastly, is the supranational law which is a set of rules that the states voluntarily obey. Since treaties administer many internationals, it is generally up to the nations to implement the law. Nevertheless, few organizations implement certain treaties. The most notable one is the United States with 192 members.

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On the other hand, the international organization, at times, known as intergovernmental organizations, are formed between more governments. Some intergovernmental organizations operate by decision-making based on a vote for every member state. At the same time, some decide on a consensus or a unanimity basis. In contrast, others have voting structures that are based on monetary donations or security interests. The UN general assembly, every state a vote, and in the Security Council, five states are members permanently and have power over the action. The World bank structures its voting according to the shareholder status of the member state. It is always thought of as the one vote method of presentation. There are about 2000 organizations that deal with various topics that need international cooperation like civil aviation, migration organization, and postal union. All international organization do have a representative from different parts of the world. An international organization operates under international laws. They can work anywhere in the world so long as it is a member state.

Multilateral Diplomacy History

Multilateral diplomacy is ancient as it developed from Westphalia agreements that ended a war in 1648 (Alfred & Ardian, pg.4). The peace treaty signed in Munster and Osnabruck is generally considered to be the certificates of sovereign states international systems. The start of multilateralism goes back to the 19th century. The Europe concert that was in 1815 from the Vienna Congress was considered a significant development step (Alfred &Ardian, pg.2). After the disorder caused by Napoleonic wars, the European powers made an informal consultation system to maintain order.

Nevertheless, the Europe concert is a limited cooperation form that is not institutionalized and depends on voluntary collaboration of main international actors. Meetings are called if they are essential. The small powers at times are consulted although they rarely participate in releases. Despite the limitations, the Europe concert allowed the central authorities to be meeting before discrepancies that cause conflicts instead of negotiating table after hostilities. It, therefore, made way for international congress for the second part of the 19th century.

At the turn of the 20th century, the Hague conferences of 1907 and 1899 marked a new start in the multilateralism development. Besides, it was the first attempt to launch a mechanism to avoid war. The 1907 conference convened the 42 government representatives. On this level, the exchanges and interaction increase between states generated by revolution push the nations to cooperate. It is majorly in the communications and transport fields that the technical multilateralism takes shape. It caused the formation of international organizations called international unions or bureaus, among the organizations that were formed included postal union and telegraph union. The technical organization activities assist in demonstrating that states can come together and develop with a common interest.

International Organizations’ History

The international organizations vary in size from three members, for instance, the United Nations and where they represent varies. Whereas some international organizations are structured to gain one purpose, others are designed to form various purposes. Their organization structures are either simple or complex, depending on the task and size. The original international organizations were created by the states of Greece and were envisioned by the writers of Europe like Pierre Dubois; they never appeared in their present form until the 19th century. According to the Napoleonic wars and French revolution of the 18th to 19th centuries, the prominent leaders of the European powers met after a period, in consultation system called the Europe concert to attempt to keep the status quo and shield their government from the inside rebellion (Mizanie & Alemayehu, n.d). Afterwards in the 19th century, several international organizations like the Telegraph Union of 1865 known as the Telecommunication Union were constituted to give specialized services and to do a particular task. In 1907 and 1899 non-European and European states met to create rules to regularize war conduct and armaments. The conferences started the Hague conversations that included agreements on peaceful war settlements, prisoners treatment, and neutral states rights. The various agreement and meetings served as precursors to 20th-century international organizations like the UN and the League of Nation. Encouragement by the economic and political inter-dependencies and improvements in transport and communication that improved after the second world war, the UN were the network centrepiece of international organizations. Finally, the 19th century saw intuition creations to deal with navigation issues or pollution issues daily. At the same time, private citizens started to establish organizations. Hence, in 1840, the convention of anti-slavery was established (Mizanie & Alemayehu, n.d).

The League of Nations

Woodrow Wilson, an American president, wanted the League to be a body of modern international relations depending on how the entire world cooperates. The League was meant to be situated in Geneva, a central location. Both small and large states were invited to join depend on how they accept the covenant of the organization. The first meeting was in 1920, where forty-two states were represented (, n.p). The people who did not attend included the USA, Russia, and Germany as they were initially not qualified for admission. Russia, by then had a radical type of system and was not considered for membership. The soviet union ultimately joined the organization in 1935.

The League functioned through three agencies: the secretariat, the council, and the assembly. The assembly convened yearly and comprised of a representative from all the states. All members had votes, and the panel comprised of eight members in the cabinet and was bestowed with executive powers. The council had the responsibility of war prevention via disarmament, supervising the League’s mandate, and resolving disputes. The secretariat was the civil servant of the League who made Agenda, and the council was the clerk hence did documentation for the public (, n.p). The League made a success in giving help to developing nations, overseeing its mandates, and solving disagreements between minor countries. In the wake of 1920s, the organization tried twice to draw away through which conflicts could be resolved and contained. The two methods targeted the aggressor nation. The council proposed that the aggressor side should be established within four days from the start of conflict and support provided to the victim nation. The treaty was a failure as they had no consensus in deciding on how to know the aggressor. In 1925, the organization tried again to look on a way of containing war.

The Atlantic Charter and UN Creation

The start of the UN was due to desperation, urgency, fear, and cooperative spirit, everyday purposes, and optimism of the world war 2. After many political and military attempts, events, and meetings, 850 members convened at San Francisco in 1945 to form a system that would bring order and expectation for tomorrow. In the concluding session, the chairman stated the passing of the Charter in San Francisco. In June same year, 50 nations formally accented to the document that was to change the international relations construct and create United Nations entirely.

The body was formed in October 1945, and that is why the UN day is storied on that date. The international court legislative act remained a vital part of the Document. The name UN was suggested by president Franklin about Nations League, an organization that was formed in the same way. Under the Versailles treaty, the League was to boost international corporation and achieve security and peace. It is essential to understand the United Nations that it was created due to practical and hard political necessity. In 1944, when the war raged at its peak, Winston stated that the UN is the sole hope that the existence had. The importance of memory, recognition, and reflection on the spirit, global optimism, and freedom of time should be realized recognized.

Presently people do not have the insight the sentiments and feelings ran and pervaded as a constant topic via affairs, thoughts, and action of people, politicians, and country. It is essentially what the successor of Roosevelt stated in the documented that "This act of military surrender is without prejudice to, and will be superseded by, any general instrument of surrender imposed by, or on behalf of, the United Nations" (United Nations). The references seem to make no sense presently, but it was vital to speak of the UN. The Atlantic document is a milestone in UN creation and steps to an international organization. The pact paved the way for UN creation as it was dedicated to the protection and betterment of nations. It was not a treaty but a promise, an affirmation, and a vision of common principles in the policies of the member nations.

The UN’s Main Organs

The UN's organs are the security council, the economic block, UN secretariat, international court, the social committee, the general assembly, and the trusteeship council. They were all established in 1949.

General Assembly

It is the fundamental, thoughtful, and political organ of the UN. All associate states of the organization are depicted in the annual assembly, devising it the structure with worldwide representation. Every year the broad group selects a general body to lead to work for a term.

Security Council

The council has an essential duty of maintaining global security and order. There are 15 associates, and all have voted. All members have the burden of complying with decisions made. It also takes the lead in establishing any threats or aggression act. It is upon the parties in conflict to settle it peacefully and recommends adjustment methods or settlement terms. In other cases, the council may decide to impose sanctions to maintain international peace. The commission is led by a president who changes and rotates every month (United Nation, n.p).

Social council

It is a body that coordinates, reviews policy, and recommends on issues and implement goals. It is the central mechanism for UN system activities. Moreover, it is a central platform for innovation, debate, and reflection thinking on development.

Trusteeship council

It gives oversight for geographical trust areas that are placed under the seven state management, and ensure the best steps were taken to make territories for independence and self-governance (United Nation, n.p).

International Court

It is the principal organ of the UN, and it is situated in the Netherlands and the only organ not located in New York. Its role is settling, as per the international court, legal cases submitted by nations and advise on legal issues.

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