Free Essay Example: Historical Criminal Justice

Published: 2023-10-29
Free Essay Example: Historical Criminal Justice
Essay type:  Rhetorical analysis essays
Categories:  Criminal law Forensic science Genetics Criminal justice
Pages: 8
Wordcount: 1960 words
17 min read

Criminal justice is referred to as the laws, agencies, as well as rules’ structure designed to hold lawbreakers responsible for mis misconduct as well as help them to reestablish their victims. Many people, after hearing about criminal justice, their minds first go to police officers, but they fail to know that this field is comprised of many things apart from law enforcement (International Student, 2019). Criminal justice is broken down into several areas such as witness and victim’s protection, the efforts along with programs to prevent the activities of a criminal, rehabilitation and punishment of the offenders, laws enforcement and violator’s apprehension, and creation along with analysis of new laws penalizing or prohibiting the behavior.

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From public accomplishments during the archaic period to the present media fascination with high-profile incidences, criminal justice has often had a method of clutching general intrigue. The field of criminal justice depends on dictated mavens across all divisions, from offender rehabilitation to law enforcement. The experts for criminal justice uphold as well as enforce the law where it needs an individual with brave and passionate to take this level of responsibility.

From the time constitution was signed in various countries, especially in the United States, to the investigation’s Federal Bureau establishment, several events have occurred in the criminal justice history, and they have changed the relationship as well as the lives of several individuals along with the law enforcement. Among the many events, this paper discusses the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) evidence as one of the criminal justice histories that have helped in the shaping of the modern-day facet (Meyers, 2007). DNA in the central system for information storage of most plants as well as animals and some viruses. Before this system was developed, many people were undergoing some challenges in determining the right parent of a child, and others would even make the wrong conclusions out of it.

Historical Criminal Justice Event

Alec Jeffries discovered DNA Evidence in September 1984, and he confirmed that he could use the samples of DNA to differentiate between the single-family members. His discovery hurriedly found applications for law enforcement. In 1986, professor Jeffries was asked by the police from the British to use his discovery for DNA to verify the concession of an individual who was accused of murder as well as rape (Shaer, 2016). After the test, the evidence for DNA proved that a different person was responsible for the case. Later, this particular person was cleared, and the real criminal offender was brought to justice.

In 1987, that was one year later, this evidence for DNA was used in the United States to convict an offender for the opening time. Based on this evidence, Tommie Lee Andrews, the rapist was jailed for 100 years (Shaer, 2016). In 2001, the same evidence for DNA put a tremendously high profile unlawful behind bars. The killer for Green River terrorized the State of Washington in 1980a as well as the 1990s, turning out to be among the most inexhaustible serial killers in America (Shaer, 2016). The task force for the professional was gathered from tracking the executioner in the 1980s.

Gray Ridgway was one of the dubious who was arrested this time, and previously, he was imprisoned for the crime that was related to prostitution. When the police tool saliva as well as hair samples from Gary, they experience a challenge of linking him to the crime he had committed using the method that was accessible at that particular moment. In 2002, the samples that were collected from this criminal in the 1980s were reexamined again by the police, and this time they managed to link his samples for saliva to semen. They identified he was among the murder victims. He was jailed again, and at first, indicated on the homicides of four females.

In immunity exchange from the demise penalty, Gary pleaded mortified to 48 custodies of intensified first-degree murder. In 2003, Gary was sent to prison to 48 life sentences in total with no parole chance and a new life sentence that was to be obliged consecutively. Additionally, he received 480 years because of the 48 tallies of evidence meddling, and he remained behind bars. Since a few cells are enough to obtain vital information for DNA to help in the case, there are a number of items that need to be collected for testing. For example, when one is looking for eyeglasses evidence, possible DNA location on the evidence is lens, ear or nose pieces, and the DNA source, in this case, will be sweat as well as skin.

The analysis for DNA is currently among the vital forensic law enforcement agencies’ tools, used for both victims as well as criminal identification. The index for National DNA contains more that 10 million criminal profiles presently and has aided several investigations. Crime scene protection is vital to evidence protection (Ossola, 2015). Preserving as well as safeguarding evidence is ultimate to crime solutions that are successful.

While documenting the scene’s crime evidence, it is essential to include the fact that if the evidence was found dry or wet. The contamination risk of any crime incidence can be minimized by limiting the activities of the incident (University Libraries, 2020). It is essential for the experts of law enforcement at the misconduct to make a conscious effort to recollect from littering, smoking, drinking, eating, or performing any other activity that can conciliate the criminal act. Since the DNA evidence seems to be more sensitive as compared to other kinds of evidence, the experts for law enforcement should be aware of their conduct at the action to hinder the unintentional evidence contamination.

Time Needed to Process A Sample for DNA Is Lengthy

Several challenges have risen in DNA evidence from the beginning to the current day times. The first challenge is that the time needed to process a sample for DNA is lengthy. A big revolution has been provided by the testing of DNA in the criminal’s identification since the fingerprint adoption in the early 19th century. Most tests for genetic take two to three days; nevertheless, the DNA takes 14 days to go from misconduct act to identification. By the time the results are presented, the suspect will have been released (John, 2015). A newly advanced test could make scrutinizing DNA from individuals who are arrested for misconduct in contrast to DNA samples from the misbehaving act stored in criminal information almost as simple as matching fingerprints.

Due to the delay the results take, it becomes hard for the criminal to believe that the evidence works hence being encouraged to commit more crimes. In most cases, criminals are returned to jail after they have released as they await the DNA evidence, and due to lack of evidence, they are found committing a more serious crime, which can lead to a life sentence. Again, when the criminal is released before the DNA evidence results are presented, after the presentation, it may be difficult to trace the criminal because some will vacate their main location.

Due to the fear of the final results, the criminal may escape the life sentence and go to live in the places where nobody knows them. To increase the forensic DNA testing speed, the experts constructed a chip with the ability to copy as well as analyzing the samples for DNA that are derived from a cotton swab. The technicians for forensic can collect the samples for DNA from the suspects through swabbing their mouth, then the sample will be mixed with some chemicals, and lastly, it is warmed (Verma & Goswami, 2014). The whole process takes a maximum of four hours, even though the research group is optimizing it as well as reducing the process to take only two hours.

The Process Is Expensive

The second challenge is that the evidence is expensive to perform. In most cases, the criminal may be released due to a lack of evidence because the victim may lack the money to cater for the whole process on DNA evidence. The longer the evidence takes, the more the capital since the experts need to provide a reliable as well as accurate information. After the collection of the samples, they are taken through several stages, and they require the addition of some chemicals to get the results. In the process, the chemicals might be expensive, and the victim may spend a large amount of money to reach the results.

This has discouraged many people from opting for DNA evidence because they may lack enough money for the whole process. Also, the preservation methods are expensive since the collected samples can not be stored in an open place. As a result, the specialist may end up spending a lot of money to cater for preservation materials along with the chemicals. Much of the time is spent making the observation, and the three activities make the entire process expensive. The scientist needs compensation since the work is much to be done by one or two individuals.

Since some technicians have developed some new methods of making the results faster, the technology needs a lot of money and skills for the evidence to be provided. The technology materials are expensive and delicate to handle, and they need people who are experienced to get the correct results. These may also be contributing to the higher charges when the victim opts for this method. The criminal justice system should intervene in this situation to ensure they help people to get their rights as well as what they require for justice. This will be a suitable way of minimizing the number of crimes that people commit, thinking that there will be no evidence.

It Needs A High Skilled Analyst

The third challenge is that the analyst who is needed to take the sample and do the testing is expected to have high skills. Experience enables them to provide reliable information as well as evidence since the unskilled analyst may give misleading information. The analysts for DNA work in a legal crime lab to examine DNA samples for the identification of the potential suspect. After conducting each sample’s tests, they compare the sample identity with other recognized samples. In case they identify a match, then they can offer the agents for law enforcement with positive documentation. All these activities need someone who is experienced and the one who has the knowledge in this field to avoid wrong interpretations.

Some of the skills that the analyst needs include quality control analysis. These are essential since they help the specialist to conduct the tests as well as to perform the products, processes, or services that are vital for performance or quality evaluation. When performing the tests, the analyst should be keen not to skip any step, and as the measures are being observed, he should also be there to observe the changes to provide a good report (Tonry, 2011). Persuasion is also essential to these individuals because they should be good at persuading people to change their behavior or minds. Some times the person who is offended maybe having the intention of doing something terrible to the criminal, and when the analyst realizes this, they should take time to talk to these people to change their mind concerning their intension. This should be accompanied by an explanation of the outcome to ensure the shift in victim the mind ultimately.

Furthermore, they should have a convincing power to change the mind s well as the behavior of the criminal. In some cases, they may improve the life of the criminal, ultimately by addressing them and showing them love. Some of these criminals commit crimes not because they are willing but because they lack the role model as well as someone to embrace them.

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