Type of paper:Â | Essay |

Categories:Â | Science World |

Pages: | 7 |

Wordcount: | 1744 words |

In Galileo's theory and experiment, few details are indeed new. The concept of motion is central in Galilean studies. Furthermore, his findings and the approach used gives a better and a comprehensible demonstration of the knowledge of motion. To decide on the central phenomenon to investigate is a gift of a genius. He appreciated that in all noticeable kinesis in nature, free-fall motion is essential to understand kinesis of all objects. Galileo's approach to motion makes a good case in the subsequent sections as a chance to discuss methods of inquiry used in science.

## Galileo's mathematic-experiment

According to Galileo (Galilei 5), nature has mathematical characteristics; however, not all natural occurrences are explainable mathematically. The steps of the numerical method are to define the law of nature accurately and then get new theoretical knowledge through proof and reasoning based on the axiom.

Galilean scientific methods involved several steps. First, it implied sensory experience. Secondly, it used current hypothesis or working assumption. Thirdly, the approach applied mathematical continuation to pinpoint the conformity to natural laws and finally, the procedure involved an experimental test of theory as the pillar of the research process. All these steps depend on mechanical natural science. The discovery of the effect of falling bodies and inertia has an essential impact on future of science.

Galileo emphasized the importance of sensory experiences in scientific understanding. He believed science depended on experiment and that the role of rational thinking is limited more so in achieving a common conclusion. Galileo researched after failed practical which aimed at determining speed as an independent parameter. The mathematical-experimental methods were critical in defining the relationships experiment between time and velocity for free falling bodies. Because velocity cannot be determined theoretically, he applied mathematics and experimentation to establish the connection, and the approach was named mathematical-experimental method. Further, the technique tested the hypothesis which could not be determined experimentally, and it referred to the hypothetico-deductive method. From the analysis, it evidenced that when speed equals time, density will be two times equal to time by subtracting. It is easy to determine if velocity equal to time because density is a derivative of speed and time.

According to Galileo (Galilei), sensory experience is the starting point of cognition. However, sensory experience in isolation cannot provide reliable knowledge. Actual knowledge is a product of practical and systematic experiments based on the mathematical description. Ingenious experiences are questionable because the process of the test determines the reliability conclusion. Therefore, for data to be factual, there is the need for technical prerequisites. In this, Galileo believed initial data could not be primordial; it is made to flow in a conceptual version of reality.

The mathematical -experimental approach extracted intuitive knowledge of central areas of the phenomenon. The method was used to derive another relationship which was easy to confirm. Galileo made other discoveries and completed other modern scientific methods. The importance of the Mathematical-Experimental approach is that Galileo was the founder and he did not like theoretical assumptions and preferred the use of experiments and demonstrations. To some extent, he used the philosophical concept based on the evaluation of evidence to test the truth. It is called the scientific data validity and does not give an abstract interpretation of experimental method (Galilei 4).

## Terrestrial motion

According to Aristotelian philosophy, a more substantial body reaches the ground faster because fall velocities depend on weight (Hawking 36). Also, the fall velocity is inversely proportional to density. The idea is lacking several things, for instance, the role of shape or aerodynamic in the fall. Today people know the force of falling object by calculating the difference between its weight and friction force due to the resistance of the medium. Thus, while weight is constant, the friction increase as velocity increase. If the mass of an object is significant, it prevails the friction force, and this makes the difference in fall from the small object.

Aristotelian theory ignored details of these kinds; his position also omitted the acceleration process between initial and final velocity. At the start, Galileo did not reject the Aristotelian hypothesis, but his attitude changed to the point of reversing the approach by identifying motion with constant acceleration as a critical factor. Later on, Galileo reproached Aristotle for claiming without experimental verification. For Galileo, experimentation is central to a scientific investigation. Galileo states "It is foolish to look for philosophical arguments that can truly describe an effect better than experiment and our eyes" (Galilei 46) he further emphasized "among the most reliable means of achieving truth, is to put experience before any discourse . . . As no sensible experience can be contrary to the truth" (Galilei 46).

There was a contradiction between what Aristotle understood about the natural motion and motion of planets around the sun. Galileo considered that to investigate movement and its relation to the earth; one should observe and find if the bodies separated from earth have some appearance of movement belonging to all. Galileo used the mathematical-experimental formula to derive the theory of terrestrial action.

In the mathematical-experimental approach (Galilei 307), Galileo realized that objects which weigh different are affected by the force of gravity similarly thus they fall at similar speed. Through the experiment, he cleared the position that bodies which have varying weights fall at varying rate. The view is supported by the realization that gravitational force is an invariable parameter, therefore, for objects with different loads, they are likely to reach the earth surface at the same time because they are acted upon by gravity at the same magnitude.

The researcher used the experimental methods to discover laws in mathematics which control the motion of bodies (Galilei 43). To approve the experiment, Galileo demonstrated that objects which are free travel horizontally under constant speed and they fall vertically because of uniform acceleration. To this end, for bodies to experience parabolic trajectories, the vertical and horizontal motions should link up but independently. Therefore, to derive the terrestrial motion theory, it was essential first to discover the mathematical theory which related actions and the resultant force produced by the movement. There was the discovery of new mathematical approach and idea to help develop science which leads to settling of terrestrial bodies.

## Galileo and Copernican heliocentric theory

Copernicus came up with a new approach which contradicted the Ptolemaic system of the cosmos. After the study of the planetary movement and the harmonious mathematical method, Copernicus discovered that the sun is the center of the earth and not the earth as previously assumed. However, Copernicus believed the earth revolves around the sun as uniform circular motion. The shape of the universe is spherical, and this means the motion of cosmic bodies should be harmonious and perfect. With the assistance of the mathematical-experimental method, Galileo added to the reception of the Copernican heliocentric theory.

Using the ideas from the hypothetico-deductive methods, Galileo made the heliocentric theory acceptable. More so, this was after study of the behavior of earth. By use of his approach, he proved the position that sun can go round the space without losing the moon. The argument between Copernican heliocentric theory and system was not welcome; however, Galileo supported the theory despite the reduced acceptance (Galilei 447). Galileo used the hypothetical-deductive approach to disapprove that not every experiment carried out are consequential enough to approve or disapprove mobility because the analysis is inapplicable to the earth at rest or in motion. Based on Copernican Heliocentric theory, there is little or no difference between the solar system which has orbiting moons and the universe (Galilei 450). The approach was crucial in determining places of the earth which are not experimental because of unavoidable circumstances.

Galileo's contribution to Copernican heliocentric theory is significant. In its original form, the Copernican heliocentric theory lacked the description of orbits used by the celestial bodies, and it also required convincing arguments to substantiate the motion of the earth. The first bit, description of orbits is explained through the work of Kepler and Galileo expounded the subsequent process of movement. The paradigm by Aristotle was no grounded in practical, and this made Kepler investigate Copernicus system to conform to astronomical data.

Galileo had to explain Copernicus theory experimentally. The use of telescope made him discover the underlying inconsistency which existed between Copernicus theories and Aristotle position. The discovery brought needed proof to refute the Aristotle hypothesis and create the important of observation over the theoretical conclusion. Despite this, the belief that practical was important than hypothetical position was not reliable evidence to prove the Copernicus system (Galilei 56). It needed reasonable explanations for various occurrences, for instance, why the earth motion has hurricanes, and they move in opposite direction, or why bodies which are thrown up by somebody never fall from behind. To derive the right explanation, Galileo investigated the concept of free-falling objects.

Galileo's theory helped in the acceptance of Copernican heliocentric theory and rejection of Aristotle hypothesis of moving earth by consideration of free-falling bodies. Galileo hardly fit Aristotle worldview. However, they were familiar with methods derived by Bruno and Copernicus. In 1642, Galileo made findings which supported Copernicus theory. For instance, Galileo discovered ridges on the moon surface, and thus he considered moon to be similar to earth by nature. On the contrary, the Church and Aristotle, the assumption on similarities between terrestrial and celestial were confirmed. Besides, Galileo discovered the four of Jupiter's satellites (Galilei 32). The fact that satellites revolved around the Jupiter lead to confirmation that earth cannot be center of solar system. In his experiments, Galileo discovered Venus and similar to the moon, it changes its phases.

## Galileo's theory and Aristotelian hypothesis

It is evident that Galileo's theory is different from the Aristotelian position. Galileo did several practical on the argument that a free falling body has a specific initial dropping velocity which is relatable to its weight. Galileo discovered that speed of falling body increase as the object falls, this disapproved the ideas presented by Aristotle. The effect of gravity on falling does not apply because the friction due to air is negligible. Aristotle hypothesis was null based on his position that heavenly bodies are spherical, smooth and they had a different composition compared to objects on earth. Galileo easily rejected thus by showing that the moon surface has several similarities with other objects on the planet. Therefore, based on "Dialogue concerning two chief world systems," all views drawn by Aristotle's were disregarded because they were unreal and grounded on assumptions (Galilei). To better support his positions, Galileo used experiments, unlike Aristotle.

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