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Cognitive Learning Theory Application in Delivering Patient Education
The cognitive learning theory principal assumption of cognitive development perceives learning as a progressive and active process that involves the learner reorganizing metal processes according to held perceptions and past experiences, new experiences or discoveries while interacting with the environment (Olson, 2015). The learner's mental reorganization of newly acquired information, ideas or concepts shapes new understanding or organized knowledge (schema) regarding a given issue or activity. The learning processes involve two major sub-processes including assimilation and accommodation. The process of assimilation involves the learner interpreting new experiences or information (acquired through interaction with the surrounding) to fit into previously held knowledge, perceptions, or ideas (Olson, 2015). The process of accommodation involves the learner interpreting new experiences or information by altering previously knowledge, held perceptions or ideas to fit in the new information thereby shaping new understanding (Miller & Stoeckel, 2017). Therefore, a nurse delivering patient education regarding appropriate self-care management practices on type 2 diabetes and medication adherence requires to view the young adult clients as active learners with previously held perceptions and experiences on self-care management and medication adherence.
The nurse should create an enabling environment for discovering the clients' held perceptions and experiences with self-care management of type 2 diabetes and medication adherence through effective communication to obtain insight on client's probable response to new intended information, ideas or concepts on the issue (Aliakbari, Parvin, Heidari, & Haghani, (2015). The nurse's obtained knowledge regarding probable clients' held perceptions and experiences on self-care management of type 2 diabetes and medication adherence will inform appropriate new information and concepts that best fit into the clients' previous knowledge and experiences thereby enhancing the assimilation process to effect positive change. The obtained knowledge of young adults' held perceptions also informs the appropriate new information or concepts that will motivate the young adult clients to alter held ineffective or misleading perceptions or knowledge on self-care management practices and medication adherence for type 2 diabetes (Miller & Stoeckel, 2017). The effective engagement of the young adult patient's accommodation learning process effects positive change promoting individual capability for effective self-care and medication adherence.
The cognitive learning theory perspectives also suggest that the learning process involves selective perception where the learner selects to pay attention to a given issue while ignoring the other (Olson, 2015). The theory suggests that the learner's selective perception is shaped by past experiences, needs, motives, attitudes, information structure and prevailing situation which also determines the tendency to remember and put it in action. The nurse should integrate the young adult client's past experiences, needs, motives, and altitude in developing self-care and medication adherence education information structure and content that meets the identified individual characteristics to facilitate remembrance and implementation (Aliakbari et al., 2015).
Social Cognitive Theory Application in Delivering Patient Education
The social cognitive theory perspectives suggest that learning mainly involves an individual observing behavior in the context of social interactions that provides role model's behaviors imitated inappropriate situational contexts and individual capabilities (Bastable, 2017). The observed behavior outcome including a reward or punishment determines whether the individual will be inclined to replicate the observed behavior. The theoretical perspective suggests that a nurse delivering patient education should provide appropriate role model demonstrating effective self-care and medication adherence behavior interventions regarding type 2 diabetes for young adults to observe and emulate in their respective appropriate situational contexts. The observational learning process involves various sub-processes such as attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation (Bastable, 2017). The attention process involves the observer/learner giving selective attention to a given aspect of social behavior depending on individual needs, preconceptions, attitudes, past experiences among other personal characteristics (Snell, White & Dagger, 2014). Retention involves the learner storing the relevant observed behavior and associated outcomes in their memory for future reference. The production process involves the learner reproducing an observed behavior within an appropriate context while obtaining feedback from others to inform future response (Snell, White & Dagger, 2014) Motivation process involves the learner evaluating the outcomes of reproducing an observed behavior against intended behavior goals or objectives.
The theory's observational learning process suggest that the nurse delivering patient education to young adults on type 2 diabetes self-care and medical adherence should provide observable behavior interventions that meet the individual care outcome expectation to draw attention, facilitate behavior retention, reproduction, and motivate reinforcement (Bastable, 2017). The self-regulation and control concept of the theory suggests that the observed behavior will be reinforced by positive outcomes that meet the learner' preset goals and objectives which produce motivation for future reproduction of the behavior. The self-efficacy concept of the theory suggests that a learner will be inclined to adopt an observed behavior with the perceived capability of successful execution and ensuring expected outcomes (Snell, White & Dagger, 2014). The theoretical concept of self-efficacy suggests that the nurse delivering patient education on appropriate type 2 diabetes self-care management interventions should focus on ensuring the clients' confidence on their ability to successfully undertake the interventions and achieving desired care outcomes to act as a motivation for future reproduction of learned self-care interventions (Bastable, 2017).
Jean Watson Theory of Human Caring Application in Delivering Patient Education
Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring perspectives focuses on delivering holistic care that adequately meets the patient's care needs, values, and preferences (Sitzman, 2018). Jean Watson's theory of human caring main concepts requires the care provider to develop an effective caring relationship for self and others that is based on ethical values and philosophical values of love and kindness. The theory proposes a transpersonal approach to care involving an individual commitment to protecting and upholding patient human dignity, respect, enhancing holistic human wellbeing including the body, mind, and spiritual wellbeing. The theory also suggests that the care provider should adopt multiple ways of obtaining appropriate care delivery concepts through scientific, art, intuitive, cultural, and spiritual approaches (Clark, 2016). The theory perspectives also suggest that the care providers should continually reflect on the care delivery practice to determine better ways of providing care that effectively improves the patient's quality of life in any caring situation. The theory also suggests that the care provider should focus on establishing and maintaining a helping-trusting patient-practitioner relationship that creates an enabling environment for seamless exchange of care information (Sitzman, 2018). Jean Watson's theory of human caring theoretical perspectives suggests that a nurse delivering patient self-care education on type 2 diabetes and medication adherence should establish and sustain a reliable interpersonal relationship with the young adult patients. The establishment of an effective interpersonal relationship should be based on the continual upholding of patient's human dignity, and respect by demonstrating love and kindness, and adequate commitment to identifying and integrating patient's care needs, values, and preferences in the teaching-learning process (Sitzman, 2018). The nurse delivering the patient education on type 2 diabetes self-care and medication adherence interventions should continually reflect on the patient's education delivery process towards facilitating learning that effectively improves the patient's self-care and medical adherence capabilities (Clark, 2016).
Ernest Codman Theory Application in Delivering Patient Education
Ernest Codman Theory suggested the care end result idea perspectives that propose follow up of patients' care plan outcomes through the continuum of the care plan (Lloyd, 2017). The theory suggests that the follow up on patients' care outcomes would inform the effectiveness of various care intervention by evaluating the care end results (Hoyt & Schneidman, 2015). The theory suggests that by evaluating the patients' care outcomes, care providers would identify inefficiencies in the applied care interventions and device innovative ways of solving the identified care/treatment interventions. The theory perspectives would also enhance care provider's accountability and commitment to delivering high quality of care that provides high prospects of favorable care outcomes (Koyle, M., Koyle, L. & Baker, 2018). The theoretical perspectives suggest that the nurse providing patient education to young adults on type 2 diabetes self-care and medication adherence should focus on establishing the outcomes of various self-care and medication adherence interventions to inform the learning process (Lloyd, 2017). The nurse should focus on fostering appropriate type 2 diabetes self-care and medication adherence interventions that would effectively improve patient's care outcomes. The theory also suggests that the nurse should continually evaluate the final outcomes of the patient's education delivery approaches towards enhancing the patient's self-care and medical adherence capabilities (Hoyt & Schneidman, 2015).
Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in
nursing education. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 4.
Bastable, S. B. (2017). Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and learning for nursing
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Type 2 Diabetes refers to a chronic medical condition characterized by an individual's body inability to maintain blood glucose at a normal level due to the body cells develop resistance to insulin hormone effect or inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin for optimal functioning (Chrvala, Sherr & Lipman, 2016). An individual diagnosed with type 2 diabetic condition requires to effectively undertake several self-care management interventions such as leading a healthy lifestyle (active physical activity, appropriate dietary plan, and body weight) and sticking to their medication or insulin therapy plan (Chrvala, Sherr & Lipman, 2016). It is essential for an individual living with type 2 diabetic condition to effectively undertake self-care management interventions to facilitate the improvement of the quality of life by ensuring favorable care outcomes (Chrvala, Sherr & Lipman, 2016). This research paper evaluates applications of various learning theories perspectives ineffective provision of patient education to young adults on type 2 diabetes and medication adherence towards enhancing their self-care management capability.. (2023, Jan 15). Retrieved from https://speedypaper.com/essays/type-2-diabetes-refers-to-a-chronic-medical-condition-characterized-by-an-individuals-body
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