|Type of paper:||Literature review|
|Categories:||Human Resources Multiculturalism Diversity|
Diversity consists the things which make individuals differ from each other. A successful firm is determined by the effort made by the employees due to their value in the organization (Svennevig, 2012). Diversity includes people from different age groups, gender, race, educational backgrounds, ethnic groups, and a wide variety of experience (Polzer, Milton, & Swarm, 2002). The initiatives of diversity are directed to complementing non-discrimination programs through the creation of a conducive workplace environment. Diversity is considered to be one of the affirmative features in a company. Diversity improves the proficiency growth of a firm because it accomplishes the innovative employee contentment, secures the linkage of multi-cultural communities, entices talents, refines the company's production, and preserves a workforce that mirrors the customer base (Hicks, 2002). This paper will review the previous research conducted on the positive and negative effects of diversity in the workstation.
Capitalizing Diversity in Workplace
The previous literature shows that capitalizing diversity in workplaces is difficult as employers are supposed to use disruptive social classifications founded on their demographic or practical changes in place of the use of a wide-ranging work team boundary as the foundation of categorizing (Ostrom, 2008). There are different ways of capitalizing diversity in the workplace. To capitalize on workplace diversity is not only focusing on age, gender, race, and ethnicity but it is also supporting each other in the workplace. Capitalizing diversity in the workplace can be implemented by identifying the current faults. Understanding the shortcomings from the past helps to embrace an efficient and diverse team in the workplace (Polzer, Milton, & Swarm, 2002). The other method of capitalizing diversity is evaluating the capability of excellent communication skills. Having excellent communication skills is the ability to be social, interrupting ethically, building a relationship, and injecting humor in a suitable way (Polzer, Milton, & Swarm, 2002).
Creativity and Innovation
Capitalizing diversity in the place of work improves creativity, makes it easier to solve problems, and increases innovation to increase the efficiency of the firm. A firm having good diversity workplace leads to the generation of an increased market share if they provide care to their diverse consumers. Research shows that firms that implement workplace diversity through the employment of various managers and team leaders pave the way to innovation (Ostrom, 2008). Different mindsets are flexible, creative and can be innovative leading to effectiveness in decision making in a firm. Diversity in the workplace provides other methods of identifying, critical thinking and acting on the arising issues, therefore improves the permanency of an organization. According to Polzer, Milton, & Swarm, (2002), diversity in the workplace is the origin of creativity and innovative ideas that lead to the potentiality of future growth and competitive advantage. This is because different employees bring together their creative ideas to the organization leading to increased production.
Capitalizing diversity in the place of work leads to the attraction of investors from various cultural and spiritual areas thereby increasing the productivity of the company. Ostrom, (2008) states that workplace diversity enhances the social interaction between employees hence learning new things from each other. Employees from a wide range of experience, skills, and different backgrounds increase the productivity of a firm. Employees with different exposures are better equipped to face the company's challenges hence maintaining the smooth running of a business. Ostrom, (2008) states that a company managed through gender equality has a higher operating margin and market capitalization. The research shows that companies utilizing their variations to enhance their core work procedures with the approach of diversity receive good outcomes (Polzer, Milton, & Swarm, 2002). Managing good diversity in the workplace leads to creation of higher power of innovation, improved understanding of managerial dysfunction, increased efficiency of training and growth, timely detection of environmental variation and opportunity, development of more cost-effective solutions to the company's problems, and enhancing the capability of a company to predict advanced growth (Ostrom, 2008).
Increased Interpersonal Congruence
Interpersonal congruence is the level at which group participants observe one another in a particular group (Polzer, Milton, & Swarm, 2002). The eagerness of individuals of a specific group wanting to know and understand one another results to improved group work efficiency. Polzer, Milton, & Swarm, (2002) state that the importance of interpersonal correspondence in a group is moderating the influence of diversity on team group running by allowing group participants to reduce the negative impact of diversity without needing them to surrender their several features and personalities. Interpersonal congruence yields high psychological and social dividends for the group members (Polzer, Milton, & Swarm, 2002). Team working creates better interactions in the place of work leading to the identification of people in the company.
The role of religion is providing people with the power of controlling their destiny. Religion and spirituality are connected to work directly since moral responsibilities can at times be strict in workstations (Hicks, 2002). People from different backgrounds working in a similar workforce have a different religion and spiritual beliefs leading to a lot of disagreements in their work areas. This diversity leads to low production due to weak interactions between the workers and employers. The strong religious and spiritual believers usually prefer their faith instead of work whereby they even fail to go to work and attend religious and spiritual activities. Hicks (2002) states that religious and spiritual diversity lack of respect among others as believers think that non-believers make wrong decisions. Cultural resistance among workers leads to negative interactions and reduced morale hence resulting in decreased production in a company (Hicks, 2002).
Employing workers of different ethnic groups lead to increased languages barriers in the workplace. Some companies are forced to hire interpreters to help workers overcome communication problems of diversity) (Svennevig, 2012). The language barrier in the workplace result to the misunderstanding of the message communicated leading to errors. Difficulties in communication lead to confusion, reduced morale, and the failure of the team working. Svennevig (2012) indicates that communication challenges cause poor interactions among employees hence the individuals learning the dominant language becomes isolated from the other workers because they are not able to contribute. Other employees find it difficult to relate to that person as they fear to upset him.
The literature review shows that organizations experience high performance after exhibiting employees who vary in age, ethnic groups, and gender. Diversity leads to creativity and innovation, increased production, and interpersonal congruence. Further research showed that diversity in the workplace enriches the knowledge and skills of the company in addition to improvement of creativity in the company. Workplace diversity also improves efficiency and provides comfortable working with associates and co-workers. Nevertheless, diversity causes negative influence in the workplace. The language barrier in a workplace These problems also leads to confusion, reduced morale, and failure of a team working. People from different backgrounds working in a similar workforce have different religion and spiritual beliefs leading to a lot of disagreements in their work areas. This diversity leads to low production due to weak interactions between the workers and employers.
Hicks, D. A. (2002). Spiritual and religious diversity in the workplace: Implications for leadership. The leadership quarterly, 13(4), 379-396.
Ostrom, E. (2008). The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies. By Page Scott E. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. 448p. $27.95 cloth, $19.95 paper. Perspectives on Politics, 6(4), 828-829.
Polzer, J. T., Milton, L. P., & Swarm Jr, W. B. (2002). Capitalizing on diversity: Interpersonal congruence in small workgroups. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(2), 296-324.
Svennevig, J. (2012). Interaction in workplace meetings. Discourse studies, 14(1), 3-10.
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