|Type of paper:||Term paper|
|Categories:||School Bullying Emotional intelligence Social issue|
1.1. Explanation of the Social Problem
The problem of harassment and bullying cannot be said to be a new issue that is affecting the students within the school. However, over the years it has been viewed to be very common in schools however it has been overlooked as a threat that might affect the student's performance in the school. Instead, it has been viewed as a belief that bullying is a developmental stage where most of the youths in the school will experience a get-over. The reality of the situation is that not only do the students get over the personal trauma those results from bullying both the victim of the bullying and the bully. According to Raskauskas (2009), the problem is not limited only limited to schools but it has been seen happening also the adult in the workplace and the community. However, school is the based place where a person can intervene actively to solve the problems that are associated with bullying. The school teacher, counselors, and the administration always have the greatest access to the student in schools and therefore they can make an organized plan to handle the social and emotional problems that the students might be undergoing within the school. It is in school that education on the weakness and social problems associated with bullying can be discussed and all the affected parties are taught the strategies that can be used to end bullying either directly or indirectly and as a result break the bullying cycle.
It is at the high school setup that acts as the last stage where the educators can have the opportunity to work hand in hand with the students at building a citizen, building self-responsibility and building a proper character. Raskauskas (2009) felt that for most of the students in high schools, this might be the last step and opportunity and intervention towards changing their behaviour concerning victimization and bullying before they can grow into adults in the workplace, in the community at large and with a family.
Bullying in school has several negative effects on the students and the school fraternity at large. This is because bullying can cause long-lasting social and emotional problems to the students that can highly affect their performance in the school. Bullying can, therefore, be defined as any kind of behaviour that is initiated by one or even a group of students against the victims that can cause physical and psychological intimidation to the students. Bullying behaviours that result in the school can, therefore, be described as either direct; for instance, threatening, bullying and stealing or to be indirect such as social isolation or spreading rumors. Research has shown that boys always tend to employ the direct mode of bullying while girls mostly use the indirect form of bullying. All these have severe effects on the victims and for an incident to be termed as bullying then the behavior must occur repeatedly over a long period of time.
Characteristics of Bullies and the Victims
Both the bullies and the victims in this scenario always have different kinds of characters. Most of the bullies always feel to be in control and very powerful. They always feel no remorsefulness when they inflict, injuries and suffering to the others. in most of the cases, bullies always tend to defy the school authority and are prone to breaking the school rules and regulations. They always have very little anxiety but seem to possess high self-esteem. Research and studies bring it clear that students who come from homes and families that are characteristic of poor physical punishment always exhibit these kinds of behaviors.
1.2. Sociocultural Theory and Bullying in Schools
Bullying can be viewed as a sociocultural phenomenon because it occurs as a result of the manner in which society shapes the behavior of some students and how their intervention affects the victims of the behavior. Referring to the provision of the framework, bullying can be associated with the occurrence of differences occurring from the social constructs where different groups are identified with different privileges and abilities. According to this theory, bullying is an outcome of the existence of different social groups which are associated with varying different levels of power.
This occurs in the school setting whereby students have a culture of determining the level of superiority attached to a student. For instance, the year of study is the most commonly used strategy to lay boundaries whose implications mean bullying to the relatively degraded group. Students at their first years of study at high schools normally fall victims of the social problem of bullying; they are normally less respected by older students due to the notion that they do not deserve any better treatment. In other cases, another criterion for bullying is gender; whereby male students are generally regarded as relatively superior and tend to use the belief to oppress their female counterparts (Maunder and Crafter 2018). In such a situation, the culture of male chauvinism in the society is influencing the behavior of students, and this is relevant to the theory as it specifies two different groups in the same setting identified with varying level and nature of capabilities.
Approaching the study and understanding of bullying in school using the sociocultural theory reveals some possible solutions. For one, the framework reveals that there is actually no difference; however, the behavior is rather determined by the historical constructs in the societal context. It can also be used to understand how social interaction may determine the nature of the relationship between different groups.
2. Strategy 1: Strong Repercussions for Bullying
There should be strong repercussions, which should be implemented as implications of the social problem. By defining punishments of varying levels to student bullies, an academic institution will be demonstrating their concern that bullying is an illegal offence and should not be tolerated. Maunder and Crafter (2018) felt that the strategy can be used to reduce the relationship between students to the same ground which further prevents the feeling of superiority in any group, therefore, creating a situation of respect between them. It is important to note that such strategies have been put in place; although, others tend to bully others secretly and even warn the victims against reporting. The strategy should, therefore, be made more strict to ensure that students are involved and urged to let the administration know.
The implementation of the strategy should the role and obligation of the administration of every academic institution. This should be covered in school rules which specify the kind of relationship that the teachers and the school as a whole expect of students. Besides, the administration should also specify the kind of punishment or penalty to be enforced in case one bullies the other (Morcillo et al. 2014). The strategy should henceforth be incorporated in the tradition of the school and every teacher should be part of the approach to ensure that the given social problem is fully controlled.
Implementing the strategy implies that students are the group to be affected; covering both the bullies and the victims of bullying. The victims will be affected in that the administration will have intervened to make the environment a better place for them to be. They could be influenced to feel free to report any attempt or instance bullying, this can probably increase their confidence while looking forward to interacting with their fellow students. The effect on the side of the bullies will be the direct punishments which help to shape their behaviors and influence them to treat each other equally.
Academic Source: School Bullies' Intention to Change Behavior Following Teacher Interventions: Effects of Empathy Arousal, Condemning of Bullying, and Blaming of the Perpetrator
In this article, Garandeau, Vartio, Poskiparta and Salmivall (2016) argued that punishing bullies are an effective way of reducing and controlling the social problem in the school. The article provided that students are normally affected by the reflection on the previous punishment and condemning discussions from teachers. This reduces the chances of them getting involved in similar acts in the future. In the article, the authors emphasized that the applicability of the strategy is most significant when the teachers involved or the administration take their time to condemn the behaviors of the student bullies while making the victims know that they should be protected against such experiences.
The article is a report of a research exercise whose purpose was to study how punishment by teachers helps reduces the chances of bullying occurring again. The authors recognized that punishment can manifest in different ways ranging from physical interventions by the teachers concerned. Besides, the teachers can intervene by letting them know that their treatments to the victims are condemned and make them viewed as less ethical in the school and the society as a whole (Garandeau, Vartio, Poskiparta, and Salmivalli 2016). The researchers used a total of 341 cases involving a previous punishment followed regression analyses. The results revealed that punishment makes the bullies feel empathy out of their treatment and this make them develop morals and avoid such behaviors in the future. This explains how the strategy can be helpful in controlling the social problem. On the same note, it is important to note that the strategy has the strength of a wide scope of application; that is different forms of punishments. However, the weakness is its reliance on changing the behavior of the bully with minimal involvement of the victims.
3. Strategy 2: Advancing Social and Emotional Learning
The use of social and emotional learning is highly known and it basically involves the teaching and application of self-awareness, responsible decision-making, self-management and relationship management. Evident-based social and emotional learning approaches and application has been shown to solid and cost-effective result. Therefore the application of this strategy in the management and regulation of bullying is very effective. All the research reviews, meta-analyses and individual studies related to various students have shown that social and emotional learning improves the classroom relationship, emotional well-being, and self-control together with kind and helpful behavior among the students and the teachers. It also assists in the reduction of various problems amongst the students such as emotional distress, anxiety, and depression together with disruptive behaviors such as bullying, conflict, hostile attribution and it has the capability of improving the students' academic performance, creativity and innovation. This is achieved because the student study in a conducive environment where there is no distraction, or emotional and social stress and as a result they will pose the urge to work more and to collaborate with one another as a result of the conducive and friendly environment for learning.
The stakeholders involved in the implementation of the strategies are teachers who have the additional competence of guidance and counselling and base their approaches to managing the behaviors influenced by psychology. Besides, schools can delegate the duties to external professionals to work with both the groups of students. Both student groups will be affected since the targeted change will be of positive implications to them.
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