|Type of paper:
|Biology Ecology Social psychology Books
The focus of this paper is the understanding of the establishment of the parallelism between Carroll's analogy of a speeding car and the double negative logic work of the regulation of the enzyme. It also gives a case on the evidence of regulation and the double-negative logic, other than the one in Carrol's book.
Carroll's analogy suggests that just as some molecular rules regulate the molecular activities within the body system, the jungle world is guided by ecological rules that ensure balance in the existence of animals and plants in a specific place. (Barrios 751). She describes Serengeti as a place of diverse animals and plants, both of different colors and shapes. He explains that the food chain ensures that a balance is achieved. Carrol relates this to the contributions of Charlie Elton. The actions of preys' and predators, eliminated the possibility of overpopulation which would lead to the depletion of available resources. Carroll compares the growth of algae in the rivers, due to pollution to the growth of cancerous cells in the body due to pollution.
Carroll explains that whenever a car is seen speeding down a street, the instant thought is that the driver has stepped on the accelerator and not that the brakes have been released. This concept, also known as the double negative logic, can be related to the idea of cellular activities, primarily when the enzymes are being regulated.
To relate the analogy with the action of the car, an analysis of the function of enzymes. Enzymes normally speed up the rates of many chemical reactions that occur in the cells. Whether it is the breaking down of large molecules into smaller particles for absorption or any other chemical activity (Veith.et al. 1092) Enzymes make the process fast. When the driver presses the gas pedal, the car in motion is likely to speed. A continued pressing of the gas pedal leads to a further increase in speed. The release of the pedal reduces the speed of the car. The brake system performs in similar ways as the gas pedal, in an opposite way, hence the foundation of the theory of reasoned action. According to Carroll, enzymes' action of inhibition occurs similarly. Biochemical reactions in cells of living things happen in two ways.
An example is the cells of mammals, which can combine and burn glucose. A lot of energy is produced in the process, making it necessary for regulation to occur. Regulation of this rate of reaction prevents the occurrence of a futile cycle, where there is no substrate flowing in any direction.
Double-negative logic was first established by psychologist Fishbein. It describes a reasoned action, where if the behavior is thought to least likely to result in a negative consequence as evaluated, then the product of the negatives provides a ground for the development of a positive thought towards the behavior.
Another example that displays the evidence of the idea of double-negative logic is the prediction of behavioral intention caused by the attitude and particular standards. In a study to determine how persuasion can occur, an attempt to persuade two distantly separated individuals to perform one similar task was made using two methods, reinforcing their subjective norms to favor the goals of the persuasion and the opposition of their subjective norms.
A person is controlled by two elements, subjective norms, and attitudes. Persuasion occurs in the system of human psychology (Petty). The process of trying to persuade a person to do an activity or comply requires the understanding of normative beliefs and motivations to accept the persuasion. Therefore, there are two ways of persuading a person. The first one involves changing of the attitudes of the person by introducing a different attitude, that aims at supporting the persuasion goal, and weakening of the beliefs that oppose the persuasion goal.
An example case is that of a person persuading his friend to go out fishing. The person would remodel the idea of going out to fish to look attractive.
The second method of persuading a person is the use of the subjective norms technique, where a normative belief that supports the persuasive goal is strengthened (Petty). The persuasion is built on the increased motivation to accept a norm that supports the persuasion. An example case is the strengthening of a normative belief that already exists within the system, for example. "It is advisable to work out daily."
The example concludes that, if one factor, supports the goal of persuasion more than the other, it makes that factor more relevant and essentially more than the other.
In conclusion, Carroll uses the analogy of car racing to explain the inhibiting action of the enzyme and the vital aspect of double-negative logic. The enzymes work in two ways, just like the gas and brake paddle of the car. In the system of human relations and psychology, evidence of the double-negative logic can be found in persuasion.
Barrios-O'Neill, Daniel. "The Serengeti Rules, SB Carroll (Ed.), Princeton University Press, Oxford (2016), 263 pp.PS 16.95 (Hardback), ISBN: 978* 0-691-16742-8 (Hardback)." (2016): 751-752.
Petty, Richard E. Attitudes and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches. Routledge, 2018.
Veith, Carmen, et al. "Redox imbalance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a role for oxidant cross-talk between NADPH oxidase enzymes and mitochondria." Antioxidants & redox signaling 31.14 (2019): 1092-1115.
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