Essay Example on What Were Europeans Hoping to Achieve When They Set Off to Explore New Territory?

Published: 2023-10-09
Essay Example on What Were Europeans Hoping to Achieve When They Set Off to Explore New Territory?
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Politics War Europe French Revolution
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1807 words
16 min read


European exploration starting in the 15th century with Christopher Columbus and the support he received from the Spanish government to undertake a voyage with finding a new route to Asia and Africa and inadvertently encounter new lands in America set the pace for European exploration. The main reasons for European exploration were to seek to develop their economies, religion, and glory. With an idea of finding new trade routes, they hoped to find new sources of natural resources like gold, silver, and many other valuable materials. The Europeans also aimed at spreading their religion, Christianity.

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Describe the impact of the Europeans on the Native peoples?

Colonization had a massive impact on the natives, including the rupture of many ecosystems and bringing new organisms while others were eliminated. Europeans brought many diseases to the natives that decimated the native population. However, the way of life of natives significantly changed as many adopted the European culture such as the dressing code, use of European items like glass beads, copper kettles, and other artistic objects. The natives were also used as slaves, thereby bringing the issue of slavery and the slave trade among the natives.

How did Luther’s, Zwingli’s, and Calvin’s ideas differ from each other’s?

While Luther, Zwingli and Calvin were renowned scholars and religious men who contributed significantly to modernization of religion, they demonstrated differences in their ideas regarding the concept and justification of God. Luther viewed God as wrath to sin and a stern judge to sin. This means that those who were outside Christ would face His wrath. While the view of Calvin is quite similar, Calvin theology emphasized that everything that happens, including the evil, is decreed by God. On the other hand, Zwingli believed that the state and the Church are placed under the sovereign rule of God. This means that while Christians were obliged to obey the state, civil disobedience was required if authorities acted against God.

How did their ideas differ from the Catholic Church’s ideas? What were some of the reasons for the wars 1492-1560?

During the 1492 – 1560 period, Christian reformation was at its peak characterized by a lot of wars regarding the Protestants and the Roman Catholics. The theology of Protestants like Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin differed from Roman Catholic mainly in the belief that Grace and Faith alone can save a person by the Lutheran while Roman Catholic emphasized in the faith which is formed by love and work. While the Lutheran believed in the power of Scripture in determining the doctrine, the Roman Catholics believed in the pope, the Church, and other traditions of the Church.

Chapter 15

What role did religion play in the wars during the period 1560 - 1648?

The period between 1560 and 1648 saw the European Christian wars that were fought mainly by the Protestant Reformation. The wars significantly disrupted the religious and the political order that was witnessed in the Catholic countries across Europe. Religion played a critical role in revolts and territorial ambitions as well as the Great Power conflicts that would mainly be ended by the Peace of Westphalia.

What were the origins of the 30 Years War, and why did it spread?

The thirty years war in Central Europe was a conflict between the Catholic and the Protestant states following the Protestant Reformation during the period. The War was mainly instigated by the Election of Ferdinand II who was a Holy Roman Emperor and a staunch Catholic who tried to impose religious uniformity on the areas he governed. In response, the Protestant states that mainly formed northern Germany formed the Protestant Union to defend their interests. This brought about the tension that led to revolts and battles of supremacy that spread across central Europe during to Christian alignment.

What were the consequences of the War of 1648?

The thirty years war brought about the modern nation-state that established the fixed boundaries of the countries that were involved in fighting and effectively decreeing the residents of the state subject to the laws of the land and not to those of other institutions, secular or religious. Through this development, there was a radical alteration of power balance in Europe that resulted in reduced influence in political affairs for the Catholic Church and other religious groups.

How did economic changes impact both people and nations during the years 1560 – 1648?

The War had a significant impact across Europe regarding the social, economic, and political implications. It should be noted that the countries that were fighting in the War had finance campaigns and money lending families in Europe with the aim of funding the War. This means that the wealth in the states dwindled as the War took its toll on finance. It has been estimated that about 50% of the wealth of the nations would go to preparing in the fight in a war. The countries that were significantly affected like Sweden were forced to develop their natural resources as the current resources could not sustain the War.

Chapter 16

What methods did Louis XIV use to become an absolute ruler?

Louis XIV became the King of France about 5 years after the death of his father, although he was technically the King since the age of four. In domination and establishment of an absolute monarch, Louis XIV developed an international recognition of the French creativity in literature, arts, and science as a strategy to dominate the European culture. With his recognition that political power lay in cultural superiority, Louis XIV developed a cultural program that would glorify the monarchy. Through his aggression in creating institutes and programs for promoting French arts, Louis XIV dominated foreign policy and used military force to expand the territorial claims.

Which countries/regions described in this chapter (16) were based on constitutionalism? How can you tell?

During the rule of Louis XIV in France, countries across Europe were divided between absoluteness and constitutionalism. Constitutionalism was demonstrated by the sovereignty of the law instead of the King with the aim of ensuring the older social contract of consultation that formed a strong England. Some of the countries that demonstrated constitutionalism included England and Netherlands. These countries especially the Netherlands was considered to be the first major modern republic with the Protestant provinces establishing a republic.

What issues caused the crisis between Charles I and the English Parliament?

The English civil wars between the British Isles and the supporters of Charles I were pronounced by the conflict between the King and the English parliament. The main cause of the crises was the belief of Charles I that through the royal prerogative, he could ignore the parliament and govern without its advice especially in granting supply to the crown as well as redressing the grievances of the aggrieved kings. However, the parliament emphasized that it had an important role in government, especially in tax income issues which aggravated the conflict.

Why was the monarchy restored in 1660? How do the ideas of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke differ?

The Stuart monarchy was restored in the kingdoms of England, Ireland, and Scotland to cover for the reigns of Charles II and help bring the brief reign of his brother James II. It should be noted that the ideologies of Locke and Hobbes differed as Locke believed in social contract theory while Hobbes believed that a monarchy would gain an absolute and unlimited power once the initial contract was implicitly recognized. On the contrary, Locke believed that the social contract between the monarch and his subjects would require continuous scrutiny for proper governance.

Chapter 17

Describe the relationship between slave labor, the plantation system and the Atlantic System?

The plantation system was a major economic development that required a significant amount of labor as it developed. Therefore, the Europeans enslaved the islanders and even imported enslaved Africans through trade with neighboring West and Central African coast. Therefore, the plantation system led to slave labor to work in the farms, especially sugarcane plantations. The need for slave labor necessitated the Atlantic System that was mainly aimed at the trade between Europe, America, and West Africa across the Atlantic Ocean.

What changes did Peter make to Russia?

Peter, the Great of Russia, had a massive determination of reforming Russia particularly modernizing the domestic structure of the country. His desire was to push Russia willingly or otherwise into a modern era. Peter made a significant number of changes to the military as well as the Church, education, and other areas of the economy of Russia. Peter aimed at having a modern army as well as navy that would be feared across Europe; hence education to the military was key to his reforms of the country.

Chapter 18

What were the goals of enlightenment writers?

Enlightenment writers who evolved as a movement that was led by European thinkers in the 18th century played a key role in storytelling, playwriting, and critiquing. The goal of these enlightenment writers was to enlighten and to inform the public. The aim of this process was knowledge, freedom, as well as happiness to the lot. This can be seen as an egalitarian goal.

Compare the standard of living of European nobility during this period (1750-1789) with the poor.

During the 1750 – 1789 period, several connections could be made between persistent poverty and the prevailing aristocratic spirit. There was a strong appeal regarding noble status as well as values against the pursuit of wealth. However, this brought about a huge gap between the economic status and the standards of living between the two groups of social classes in Europe.

Chapter 19

How did the French Revolution differ from previous revolutions?

The French revolution shook France in the late 18th century demonstrating various differences with other revolutions like the American Revolution. The difference of this revolution with other revolutions was the growing number of the popularity of the works of the increased number of intellectuals who argued for the social reforms. Additionally, the crop failures of 1788 increased the existing economic relentless that was not evident in other revolutions. Besides, the participation of the French government into the American Revolution drove the government bankrupt. This meant that the French monarchy could not adapt to the political as well as the social pleasures that were exerted on it.

What were some of the grievances that precipitated the French Revolution?

During the French Revolution, the largest grievance by the peasants was the burden of taxation from various corners of the government. During this period, the peasants were taxed by the Church, the landlords, and the crown. Together with the burden of this taxation, the crops were failing, hence leading to economic hardships. Also, there were massive financial concerns and the lack of religious freedom in the feudal system. Christians were being forced to pay a 10% tithe was the country was deeply Catholic. Finally, peasants wanted an equitable representation in government.

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