Between 1844 and 1877, the U.S. was experiencing great development while its population grew considerably. Regional tensions started emerging, particularly on the issue of slavery, which resulted in the emergence of the Civil War, whose course as well as its repercussions contributed to the notable transformation of the American society. During this period, the U.S. was focusing on pursuing an expansionist policy, whose goal was to expand its foreign policy leading it to emerge as a migration hub for individuals from different countries of the world. The widespread expansionism in line with the broadening regional divisions and the various debates that revolved around slavery as well as other cultural, economic, and political issues led the country to the Civil War. Although the victory realized during the Civil War a together with the disputed rebuilding of the South played a major problem in settling the secession and slavery issues. However, many unresolved questions remained regarding the federal government' power and rights to citizenship. Thus, it is worth considering the various tensions associated with slavery and how they made life in America, in particular among the people of color (blacks), difficult in their diverse ways of life.
For instance, concerning “Address adopted by the Convention of Colored People of Virginia,” it advocates for a Federal Constitution that would hinder states from differentiating people based on their color or race. The people seek voting rights to select a government that would meet their grievances and allow them to safeguard themselves from their enemies. As for “A Visit of the Ku-Klux,” it revolves around how the former Confederate military troops established the Ku Klux Klan during the Reconstruction with the goal of sustaining the supremacy of the whites. They did this through intimidating, harassing, and murdering African Americans, especially the ones who tried to exercise their voting rights. Moreover, regarding the “Colored Rule in a Reconstructed State,” the Northern electorate insisted that the government should lay emphasis on economic issues owing to the general cases corruption by Reconstruction governments. An unwavering stand revolved around the notion that the Reconstruction governments would direct corruption to the twentieth century. The black individuals who held office positions faced the blame for the incidence. For instance, the legislature of South Carolina was targeted as a corruption symbol since it served as the only council that blacks held majority seats.
Upon the end of the Civil War, the “Letter to a Friend in England” reveals that most of the people based in the South had to find ways of starting over. Businesses, hospitals, and homes needed rebuilding. The fields that had been neglected needed sewing using new seeds. The families that lost their fathers or husbands needed to embark on rebuilding initiatives on their own. The whites and blacks had to devise ways of learning how to earn a living in the new economy, mostly because African Americans were making a living. Here, the whites felt they were oppressed, thereby creating a need for dividing the entire South to military districts while eliminating the law and civil courts. Lastly, “Sherman’s March to the Sea” entails a successful campaign carried out in Atlanta that resulted in the capture of Savannah's port city. The campaign was bold to the extent that it led to the absolute destruction of the South, both the military and industry targets, which destroyed the capacity of the Confederate to wage war. Therefore, based on the tensions that prevailed between 1844 and 1877, it is apparent that the colored individuals suffered greatest challenges since the whites perceived them as inferior. The blacks were subjected to all kinds of mistreatments, blames, and injustices. Similar incidences are still prevalent in certain states in the U.S. today despite the notable progress it has realized over time.
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