In males, deep voices, masculinity, the appearance of the face and hair patterns of the body are determined by the hormone testosterone. As males go on aging, the levels of testosterone reduce which leads to low production of sperms and development of physical and psychological symptoms. This is a natural process of aging whereby we find that testosterone reduces by 10% each decade in males after they have reached the age of 30. Therefore a condition that is related to the reduction of testosterone is referred to as andropause. It differentiates with menopause in women in that development of symptoms, and the decline of testosterone is gradual. With this, our primary purpose will be on male andropause and how it came to be since it is a significant problem that is being experienced by males as they age.
Firstly science has been involved with the increase in people's life expectancy. For instance, the case of India we have males' life expectancy increasing from 45 to 67 years. That is about 49 million men in India are 65 years and above which makes the world's elderly male of around 18%. Therefore as a result of this, there is the development of interest in the aging-related health problems. There various hormonal changes that aging men undergo which include a reduction in plasma androgen levels (Boiko, 2018). The menopause of male is not appropriate since it illustrates the dropping of hormones involved in sex like the case of women in the state of perimenopause. It was brought up in the past where there was the use of male climacteric to indicated decline and not a high drop of hormone concentration. However, due to the similarities between the effects in men and women menopause got to stick among the people. Therefore level of testosterone that is abnormal may result due to dysfunction of the testicular or hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction which may develop within an individual as he grows or acquired.
Reduction of testosterone concentration in aging men is due to the declining of Leydig cell mass that is found in the testicles. It can also be due to the hypothalamic-pituitary homeostatic control not functioning well which leads to low luteinizing hormone production. Usually, an aging man has low plasma testosterone concentration which varies depending on the age bracket of the individual. From most of the studies, it is clear that these concentration starts to decline at the middle age then progress linearly as the individual ages. Plasma testosterone concentration decline is related to the increase in binding globulin which is plasma concentration of sex. As a result of this active bioavailable testosterone reduces. Apart from that, the case of the age loss may also lead to hypothalamopituitary circadian which contributes to exaggerated falls of plasma concentration during the evenings.
On the other hand, there is hypotestosteronemia in which at least 1% of healthy men between the ages of 20 to 40 fall. In most of the cases, it is associated with heredity whereby around 60% of the testosterone concentration that is variable and 30% of SHBG might have come up due to the factors of genetics. Apart from that, low testosterone concentration may also be contributed by the orchitis, testicular trauma or any other pathological disorder (Giltay, van der Mast, Lauwen, Heijboer, de Waal & Comijs, 2017, p.430). Lower concentration of bioavailable testosterone might also come up due to obesity and insulin which may also affect SHBG. Another factor that may contribute to the low level of testosterone is an individual's lifestyle. A good example is increased intake of alcohol and stressful issues one experiences resulting in mood-less events and lack of interest in doing something.
There is collaboration when it comes to hypotestosteronemia and bioavailable testosterone. Hypotestosteronemia is mainly associated with depressed mood which leads to the low concentration of testosterone in aging men. Androgen treatment studies illustrate that there is a sense of well-being and improved energy levels in aging people. Therefore since mood disturbance is associated with hypotestosteronemia replacement for the testosterone may prove to be beneficial on correct trails being done to the individual. Apart from that, there is also the case of fatigue that may lower ones morale lowering his testosterone concentration. From the studies carried out, one can say that with the use of supplements there was a significant drop in the symptoms which increased with the withdrawal of androgen.
Apart from that when a man is growing old, there is an increase in fat deposition on the chest and central part of the body which is followed by the reduction in muscle mass and strength. To comprehend this a look in growth hormone concentration is vital. That is growth hormone concentration falls causing an increase in the SBHG which result to decrease in the bioavailable testosterone. As a result of this, for hypotestosteronemia men to be fat-free, gain muscle bulk and have the strength there must be a testosterone supplementation. Hypotestosteronemia results in bone loss that is accelerated in young males while the density of the minerals at the hip, spine, and radius in the older men is related to concentrations of testosterone that is bioavailable. This illustrates the impact of replacement therapy of testosterone on the metabolism of bones in hypotestosteronemia men.
However, most men end up showing symptoms that are vague but associated with testosterone deficiency. This has resulted in the development of aging males' questionnaire which facilitates in symptom assessment (Riegle, 2017, p.120). As a result of this, it was expensive to screen health issues related to a low concentration of plasma testosterone. It helps to identify patients with low testosterone levels which are carried out in the laboratory for confirmation. One of the parameters that are taken is to come up with the presence of hypogonadism. It is done through calculation of total testosterone and testosterone that are free through the use of free testosterone method of analysis. This supports its results since one finds out that at some point androgen deficiency was only related to the older men and not the young men which was not the case with the study done among men in the 40s that illustrated around 75% of men do experience changes that are negative.
From what one has learned from the above context, he or she may conclude that andropause is one of the significant factors that affect men as they age. Therefore for an aging individual to improve his or her physical symptoms, metabolic abnormalities and a life that is of quality he or she need to engage in testosterone replacement therapy which will help to improve the strength, resistance to insulin, bone mineral density and the cognitive function of the individual. To help solve the issue of andropause medical facilities should develop a routine in one's lifestyle in what an individual should indulge in. For instance like the case of alcohol they should ensure that it is regulated as it influences the levels of testosterone in an individual's body.
Boiko, M. (2018). 302 Stimulating hormone therapy in the treatment of age-related hypogonadism. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 15(7), S244-S245.
Giltay, E. J., van der Mast, R. C., Lauwen, E., Heijboer, A. C., de Waal, M. W., & Comijs, H. C. (2017). Plasma testosterone and the course of major depressive disorder in older men and women. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(4), 425-437.
Riegle, G. D. (2017). Endocrine regulation of the testis in the aged male. In Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Aging (pp. 115-132). CRC Press.
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