How does an aging population affect a global society? In the past, many people were not living more than 50 years as it is happening today worldwide where individuals have the lifespan of more than 80 years. The aging population is accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of young individuals hence creating problems or challenges in different dimensions (Bloom, Boersch-Supan, McGee, & Seike, 2011). The old-age dependency has been increasing over some years. An aging population is a global problem since every country is experiencing it. The improvement in medical advances and life has enabled older individuals to live longer.
However, developing countries experience aging population growth. Some disease like heart diseases, hypertension, dementia, and cancer have an impact on old people. The growth of the aging population affects aspects of economic lives and social lives. Apart from global issues, we cannot forget some tough experiences older individual has to pass as they age. They face physical and emotional neglect, violence and abuse. This is not an issue for the government, but every person has been impacted indirectly or directly. The aging population is a global problem, but the government should enforce policies where older people are supposed and encouraged to reduce their working hours in their workplace and also pay taxes to improve the economy.
Most individuals in the global society perceive aging population as a global problem, and it is driven by the decrease in fertility and improving surviving that happens in demographic transition. The fertility rate is lower due to an increase in longevity. In 1950, the fertility in Mexico was 6.7% of live birth per every woman and 5% of people population aged 60 years and above. But from 1970 fertility reduced in Mexico and 2017 remained below the replacement level. The decrease in fertility has happened in Latin America and Asia and the even Caribbean. Therefore, multiple disciplines or population have different perspectives concerning the aging population as a global problem.
Middle-aged population, view that various countries experience an aging population problem. For example, Germany is the third country with a population of 60 percent of old people. The demographic transition of aging population problem kicks up in Latin America, Asian and Caribbean due aging population compared to Northern America and Europe.
Youth perceive aging population as a phenomenon in which individual history is observed in the developing and developed world-leaving behind economic, health and social problems. The aging population does not improve the economy of the country since there is insufficient youth workforce which improves productivity. Contacts and relations in age group and the relationship between young and old individuals through the exchange of functions and close connection between generations led to the emergence of the socio-economic problem (Anderson & Hussey, 2000).
According to the elderly population, this global problem arose as a result of diversities from a different population, for example, children, youth, middle-aged and aged. The old people faced problems due to rapid population growth, low economic growth and an increase in poverty. The aging population is a global problem since it is affecting every person in every society no matter the sex and age.
However, the impacts and implication of old age are reflected in all aspects, for instance, economic aspects where the aging population has impacts on saving, investment, consumption, economic growth, labor market, taxation, and pension. In social setup, aging affects health care, living arrangement, family composition, and housing. The trends concerning aging are irreversible due to demographic transition that takes place in the world, where both mortality and fertility have reduced in an unprecedented manner. Aging population plays a role in intergenerational solidarity and equality which are the foundations of every society. Thus, the life quality of aged was affected because of the current change like the change in technology.
The argument that supports a Proposed Solution
The aging population is a threat to global society. Aging population has become a global problem since it has led to increase in dependency ratio, low taxes income, an increase in costs for health care and lack of technological know-how (Blaschke, Freddolino, & Mullen, 2009). However, the proper solution is provided to counter the immense problems. To reduce the dependency ratio, the retirement age should be increased. Increasing retirement age is beneficial since increases the revenue (Brooks, 2003). Providing pension for low-income earners during working life, tend to minimize income and social inequality. The solution to encounter low-income taxes is saving for retirement during working life so that upon retirement one will be able to benefit from the savings.
Another solution to solve health care costs is suggested by the United Nations that the government should pay attention and invest in the health so that individual live actively for a long time (Ortman, Velkoff, & Hogan, 2014). Also, United Nation suggests that government and politicians should help families to have at least more than one kid through education that helps in the growth and productivity of society.
Proper technological education should be imparted to aged people to ensure proper data protection in the workplace. Coping with changing technology will help aged workers to work efficiently, maximize funding, to minimize compliance, to reduce safety risk and to improve their productivity in a working environment (Selwyn, 2004).
However, the Aging population as a global problem can be solved in most countries through interdisciplinary education and research that addresses the problem at all levels. The various disciplines should carry out their research in ways that result mutually accessible to the old people. Improvement of survival techniques for elders will solve the aging population problem. Individuals live longer due to various reasons; the improvement in nutrition, proper education, health care, and better living standard.
Also, having older people can bring the solution to social problems. For example, grandparents take care of the children when the parent is away. Management scholars have important opportunity to involve and shape aging population discussion and led to the contribution of research that helps managers, policymakers and people to make better and informed decisions (Brooks, 2003). Aging population creates workplaces that are inclusive and helps employees to be flexible in achieving work-life balance.
Validity, Reliability, and Biasness of the Topic
Validity entails the accurate study that assesses and reflects the specific topic or concept that the study or researcher wants to measure. Reliability entails actual measurement accuracy procedure or instrument CITATION Kri08 \l 1033 (Krippendorff, 2008). The study ensured proper validity and reliability of the research were where questionnaires were administered to 5000 aged people from four continent; Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, and Europe. The study used disengagement theory. The sampling techniques based on 2000 aged men and 3000 aged women from four continent; Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, and Europe
Percentage / Aging problems
- 80 / Dependency ratio
- 70 / Low tax income
- 60 / Lack of technology skills
- 75 / Cost in health care
- 20 / Not informed
I represented dependency ratio
2 represented low tax income
3 represented lack of technological skills
4 represented cost in health care
5 represented not informed
Based on the research conducted, the following findings were obtained. According to the study, 70% of the population that participated in the study agreed that aging population is a global problem, 10% disagreed while 20% were not informed (Mafauzy, 2000). The study found out that 80% of the aging population in global society were dependents on basic needs such as health and government incentive (Razin, Sadka, & Swagel, Journal of Political Economy, 110(4) ). The study also confirmed that 70% of the aging population resulted in low tax income. Also, the study finds out that 60% of the aging population lacked technological skills 75% of population observed that aging population resulted into cost in health care and finally, 20% of the population were not informed (Blaschke, Freddolino, & Mullen, 2009).
The weakness of disengagement theory is that it does not consider all older individuals who do not feel distant themselves from the society. Its strength is that it explains the individual process of aging. The research could not portray the magnitude and type of problems and conditions for older people about the age group, mental health status, gender, physical, socio-economic and ability to become productive.
Therefore. Further research is needed to enable the environment, available resources, family, society, community, and state to take care of older people hence making them self-reliant, productive and independent. Further suggested research topics about aging population are; how does aging population affect the structure of the economy? What global social innovations and local are keeping old people healthier for longer?
Positive and Negative Ethical Outcomes
From the solution, both negative and positive ethical outcomes are obtained. For example, the positive outcome is that the attention the government pays and investments it makes on health so that individual live actively for a long time. The negative outcome resulted from the solution is the lack of equal treatment of people irrespective of age in all aspects of life. This is in the case where the aging population is favored by the government through the provision of accessible health facilities and government grants.
The ethical issues that relate to the outcomes are; accountability where the government is supposed to be accountable for every citizen and minds their basic rights. Fairness is another ethical issue which entails equal treatment of people respective of their age.
The aging population is a global problem, but the government should enforce policies where older people are supposed and encouraged to reduce their working hours in their workplace and also pay taxes to improve the economy. The aging population is growing in many countries due to environmental factors like pharmaceutical use, pollutants, lifestyle and nutrition (Nagel, 2005). It is a crucial time that the government should be aware of the growing problem and plan about insurance of old age. The elders should learn how to adjust to changing modern life so that they will prepare to welcome and accept old age.
The problems associated with an aging population are; high dependency ratio, low tax income, lack of technology skills and costs in health care. In addressing the issue of aging population as a global problem, a person should ask the following questions; what medical condition of the aged population? What is the nature of the aging population? The state and society should acknowledge the problems relating to aging and provides programs and policies for old people welfare. The voluntary organization should care the aged people by providing financial support to meet their needs.
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