Free Essay: Definition of Inclusion and the Model of Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Components

Published: 2019-09-02
Free Essay: Definition of Inclusion and the Model of Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Components
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Teaching Special education
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1761 words
15 min read

There have been several studies done in relation to the particular education sector. Two prominent researches to use in this assignment is the study done by Stuart Woodcock in 2013 and the study done by Francis Lai Lee in 2014. From Woodcock study, trainee teachers have attitude towards specific students with certain disabilities (Woodcock, 2013, 17). A teacher might have a negative attitude towards a slow student as the teacher perceives the student to require more time than other students. From the study done by Francis Lai in 2014, it seconds this statement as it shows ways in which a teachers attitude affects performance of children in a global context (Lai et al., 2014, 61). To add on, the two studies have a strong foundation base in showing ways in which a teacher contributes to a students performance. If the teacher has a positive attitude towards a child, it provides to the child performing well while negative attitude often leads to low performance. The studies also show the importance of inclusive practices as they often result in improvement of the individual education sector. Inclusion training are important as they contribute positively in a global context to ensuing of advancement in the field of special education in most states around the universe.

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Inclusion is a vital aspect as it contributes positively to special education. The term expresses the act of putting students with disabilities and the students without disabilities in mainstream classroom environments. The policy ensures that through interactions and encounters that the students have, there is the improvement in the quality of education offered. Most governments support the practices as they have contributed significantly to students achievement in a global context (Lai et al., 2014, 61). The reason behind this is that previous researches have shown improvement of special education in most of the countries around the universe. In addition, the policy of inclusion in several countries has proved a lot of positive results as statistics show that students have had significant improvements in their general performances.

The inclusive policies are necessary as they have changed teachers perspectives about special education. Firstly, isolation of pupils with special needs arouse feelings of contempt to the students, which generally affects a students performance in class (Woodcock. 2013, 18). Mainstreaming is important as it poses a challenge to the student to improve their personal skills due to various education in the school environment. The reason behind this is that the pupils are grouped according to respective abilities and disabilities that can well match the other typical students to improve their abilities in an educational context and it happens at specific times.

Culture is an important and significant aspect of special education. The reason behind this is that cultures are human beliefs that significantly affect human psychology. Teachers have to efficiently manage a classroom setting (Lai et al., 2014, 61). Mainstreaming is one policy that helps them in classroom management as mainstream classes significant boost students confidence. The seclusion of students with disability affects teaching as students themselves advance their knowledge through sharing among themselves what they learned from simultaneous teaching, enhancing their understanding abilities.

The model of cognitive is vital in the field of special education. Below is a representation of a cognitive model.

The model expresses teachers attitudes, habits and behaviors of the student in a classroom setting. From a pure habit, it grows into expression that reveals ones way of life. Ones attitude towards an object, (in this case a teachers attitude towards a student) affects a students outward behavior in the classroom. Attitude results to normative results that finally define a students identity in their outcomes. The above reasons show the importance of teachers having positive attitudes towards students as it shapes their results. For the above reason, the policy of inclusion is important as it plays a crucial role in developing teachers behaviors towards students and the general field of special education.

Attitude affects behavioral components in students. The reason behind this is that if one has a positive attitude towards another person, he or she emboldens the other person to ensure that the other person improves his or her abilities (Lai et al., 2014, 61). The person who receives the positive attitude behaves in a positive manner, which shows positive outcomes. In the educational context, teachers especially the ones who handle students with special needs ought to have positive attitudes towards their students as it is important for it ensures that the students behave positively. In addition, students with disabilities require maximum concern and feelings of love to ensure they do not feel isolated or disadvantaged (Woodcock. 2013, 17). Cultures that led to inclusive practices played a fundamental role in ensuring that such students feel loved, cared for and in similar grounds with no disadvantages due to their physical status.

Previous Studies about the Topic Especially In Egypt and Arab Countries

From comparing the study done by Stuart Woodcock in 2013 to the one done by Francis Lai Lee in 2014, the states in the Arab region have teachers who are efficient in providing special education. Some factors such as religion shapes the teachers attitude, leading to better results as compared to other states. Francis study support the other study as it shows ways in which primary teachers in the Arabian states have their attitudes towards kindergarten children with special needs prepared in advance. From the above studys one can advocate for teachers to have a positive attitude towards learners as it contributes positively to the special education system and entire education sector.

There have been various studies in relation to ways in which teachers relate to students with disabilities. The Arabic countries have various cultural practices that relate to ways through which teachers relate to students with disabilities. Most of the Arabic countries embrace a society that gives priority to the education of persons with disabilities (Lai et al., 2014, 63). Besides, the countries practice a culture that addresses problems related to special education on the regular basis. The Arabic cultures and religion, in general, plays a critical role in ensuring that maximum that inhabitants give maximum consideration to individuals with disabilities. The reason behind this is that despite states in the Arab region having a variety of cultures, their religion converges all the cultures under one umbrella, which plays a key role in ensuring that all people in the states embrace what their religion dictates to them. That is the main reason behind Arabian people giving vibrant support to aspects that advance special education.

Subsequently, studies have shown the Arabic countries contribution positively to special education. One can effectively use religion in Egypt as a framework for in learning about cultures practices by Arabs, especially in Egypt and its relation to disabilities (Lai et al., 2014, 67). The Muslims holy and religious book applies as a framework and base that regulates beliefs and cultural practices. The regulation of beliefs and practices helps the people in the Arabia region in ensuring that teachers have positive attitudes towards students with disabilities, which contributes to students with disabilities performing well as the students enhance their learning and understanding abilities of the learners. The outcome is positive from Egyptian culture and Islam in general as it ensures that the teachers have the positive attitude towards the students.

Studies show that teachers have pre-service training beliefs about students in their training stage. However, learners are powerful in shaping outsets and prospects concerning learning in schools (Lai et al., 2014, 64). During the learning process, the students further shape the beliefs about the teachers and their teaching ways. In cases where the teachers have positive attitudes, the students are cooperative and their learning is easy as they tend to adhere to instructions from teachers who have a positive attitude towards them. Additionally, the students are cooperative in the learning process, which leads to the students having better performances.

The history of Islam has shown positive relation and reception of disability. The religion does not exactly teach and talk about disability, but it shapes the cultures and beliefs of the Arab people general to appreciating and living positively with the disable people in the society. In a global context teachers especially in the primary level of education react differently towards the policies of inclusion (Lai et al., 2014, 62). The cultural aspects play a crucial role to ensure that there is regulation of attitudes towards students with disabilities. For the above reason, religion plays a significant role in ensuring that teachers have positive attitudes towards students and pupils with disabilities. The above reason plays a crucial role to offer better special education services. The above reasons make the nations in this region offer better special education services as compared to other states around the globe.

Factors Influencing Teachers Attitude

There are several factors that contribute to the attitude that teachers have towards students with special needs. Governments in a global context undertake inclusive practices as an attempt to improve special education. There are several factors that contribute to attitudes that teachers have towards children with special needs. One of the factors is the difference in abilities that impedes giving out of instructions clearly (Lai et al., 2014, 66). A significant number of teachers especially trained teachers to say that it is difficult to give instructions effectively to a large number of students that is mixed up with the normal students and students with special needs. Such factors among others contribute to the teachers attitude towards students. Some factors are teacher related while others are primarily child based factors such as understanding ability and speed to heed to and follow teacher given instructions effectively.

There are teacher related factors that influence attitude towards learners. One of them contact with students. Teachers should have regular strong contact with students to enable them perform their duties effectively. Contact extends to the teachers ensuring that students have access to instructions and subject matters of lessons and topics being taught. Close contact needs positive attitudes, as positive attitude ensures that learners understand what teachers teach in classroom settings.

Another factor that contributes to a teachers attitude towards students is the experience. One may be a trainee with less experience of ways in which he or she should treat children with special needs (Lai et al., 2014, 65). Most experienced teachers know that attitude largely affects the performance of students in classrooms. In addition, attitude alters a learners understanding. Learning such aspects from experience helps one to change their attitude to suit a pupils learning and improve his or her performance significantly. In the training stage, some teachers perceive teaching students with disabilities an easy task. Some find the job harder and grow negative attitudes affecting pupils performance greatly (Woodcock. 2013, 19). A...

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