STRATEGIES AND METHODS TO INCREASE PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE REDUCTION
According to O'Connell (2011) review of the literature indicates that there are techniques that encourage the community to participate in garbage minimization and behavioural changes. Although, there has been a lot of emphasis on recycling, to comprehend on how to elevate involvement in waste recycle is a significant move towards sustainability. However, waste reduction goes beyond recycling (O'Connell. 2011).
Implementation of the social norm advantage
Stressing on the issue of the public to illustrate actions to cultivate new behaviours. People can encourage the society by only undertaking certain strategies such as recycling so as others can get along with the process. For example in vast areas like Gwale and Dakata, recycling initiatives can encourage the society to participate if personal residence demonstrates the actual recycling process (Nabegu, 2010).
Contribution to environmental advantages
Likewise, O'Connell (2011) argues that performance that is catalyzed by environmental concern is more probable to exist longer as opposed to conducting driven by financial gains. In attempts to invest in the relationship between regard for the environment and control of wastes, government lobbyist and other private institutions have emphasized on a destruction of the environment due to an unmanaged disposal of wastes (McAllister, 2015). Therefore, to motivate the public into action, focus on the benefits of the environment would increase participation better than negative information about the environment.
The promotion of benefits to individuals and community
Past studies have shown that there has been a real correspondence between advantages of people and recycling. Also, as a big motivator for waste management, like reuse and recycle, a connection with exclusive benefits and financial gains were observed, rather than environmental sensitive drive. Therefore, O'Connell (2011) recommends that the public and institutions need to understand the importance of rewards when advocating for waste performance changes.
Foundation of adequate access to equipment and availability of information
McAllister (2015) postulates that the most appropriate performance modification in waste management like recycling is providing access to programs that are designed and institutionalized for availability to the public. Therefore, local authorities and urban centers like Kano metropolis can foster participation through enhancing availability to modified wastes channels. Also, landlords can promote engagement by providing access within multi-dwelling residences. It is a real encouragement to communities if they can travel short distances to appropriate locations for waste disposal (O'Connell, 2011). Furthermore, the Kano University of Science and Technology now provides diploma courses to waste administration, and this reinforces the use of skills and information in MSWM.
Lobby for positive perceptions regarding reduction of wastes
Reorganizing the association between the people and spend through focusing on environmental, community, individual and economic benefits and consequently, reduce of MSW is more efficient rather than creating awareness (Ramachandra and Bachamanda, 2007). There is inevitable fear developed when the society experience wastes and its illustrative contemplation of death as described by advocacy on garbage hazards. O'Connell suggests that information sharing and awareness from different institutions provided to the public should acknowledge the horror connected to the wastes and therefore, invent better and non-distress techniques to eliminate the negative emotions.
CHALLENGES OR BARRIERS OF INVOLVING THE PUBLIC IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Lack of adequate access to resources
Most developing countries are affected by this barrier especially in using free facilities for recycling. It comes about when the government and institutions in the private sector fail to attend to MSWM initiatives. Therefore, unavailable infrastructure to recycling gets discussed as a major setback to encouraging participation by developing countries.
Illiteracy and disturbances
Similar to residents in Kano metropolis, research has supported that people find it more convenient to dump all waste than enduring the troubles for sorting them out for recycling, and thus acts as a barrier to participation. On the other hand, lack of understanding of the recycling process has become a huge factor that influences recycling decisions.
Legal policies and untrustworthy authorities
Failure of having trust between the public and municipal officials poses a huge obstacle to a refusal of participation by the public and residents of urban centers, in undertaking corrective measures to waste management.
Limited actions and value
People have differences over concern of the environmental threats from household garbage and reduced response from the people in minimizing their litter or rather participate in pro-environmental activities. This is due to the value-action divide posing a challenge to public involvement in MSWM. Nevertheless, research by different authors indicates that there is an active social behaviour that reinforces environmental conservation. However, the disbelief that the continuous impacts of the public are destructive as the industrial wastes remains a familiar feeling in the society (O'Connell, 2011).
The level of community engagement in the management of urban solid wastes is little in Kano metropolis. There is a lack of a structure that would facilitate the stronger connection between the people and municipal authorities of Kano urban areas. Therefore, the public leans on the wrong side of the law by engaging in irresponsible management of the environment. Reduction of garbage through reuse is a fundamental task of the communities at the phase of waste production. Sustainable waste management in Kano area has been challenged by factors such as lack of education and awareness about the advantages of the environment and consequently, the outcome is a sustainable development because of minimization of wastes.
Nevertheless, the garbage sector comprises of public organizations, the society, and enterprises that are involved in its generation. Kano metropolis has the majority of the private institutions taking part in gathering, transportation, and disposal of all kinds of wastes. It has been known that an efficient solid waste control scheme ensures that all industrial, household and commercial litter is gathered, moved, and discarded in a manner that is safe and environmentally sensitive. It becomes more significant to comprehend about public participation and the components embedded in the organizational, local, economic and socio-cultural aspects towards appropriate municipal solid garbage management.
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