|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Policy Police Criminal justice|
Policing as a strategy aimed towards identifying a crime
Problem-oriented policing is a strategy aimed towards identifying a crime and various social disorders, then developing strategies that may reduce or eliminate the same. Coined by Herman Goldstein, this definition arose from the increased use of police force in dealing with certain scenarios within the neighborhoods and other metropolitan communities. This term effectively replaces the present standard for policing, which is often reactive and dependent on incidents, whether non-violent or violent (Eck & Spelman, 2016).
Miami (Fl) is a tourist destination, and as is expected, criminals take advantage of the seasonal increased numbers to carry out their activities. The Center for problem-oriented policing outlines the possible crimes that are likely to be committed. This guide is available for both locals and tourists. It also reviews the factors that may contribute to an individual being the target of a crime. Pick-pocketing, organized crime and financial schemes are at the top of the list. The perpetrators take advantage of the touristts natural curiosity to drag them into something from which they are unable to escape (Altindag, 2014).
According to research carried out by Gill, Weisburd, Telep, Vitter and Bennet, a problem-oriented form of policing helps in reducing crime and disorder within the community. The presence of structures that are proposed by the members is useful in allowing for the identification of problems and what needs to be done to eliminate them (2014). This research was based on first-hand information and other supplementary material.
Public partnerships in the policing
This policing encourages the community members to report crimes and their respective times of occurrence. Crawford and Evans evaluate the emergence of certain preventive measures and whether they have a historical backing. They also identify the evolution of crime and whether the current forms are worse than what was initially experienced. It is possible to establish preventive partnerships with the several stakeholders, as is reiterated in the paper (2016). It is not enough to conceptualize an existing problem; efforts are required to include the reduction efforts into the institutions within the community.
All crime-prevention activities are geared towards making the community safer. However, it is probable that this information may reach unintended persons, causing greater damage. The issues surrounding this problem cannot be ignored because they have a far-reaching impact on all segments of society. Crawford and Evans further reiterate that a problem-oriented policing must go through the conceptualization, take-up, and introduction of a defensive mentality. It is impossible to engage in policing when the memberst safety is unguaranteed.
The conclusion of problem-oriented policing is that it requires the participation of all stakeholders for efficiency. Methods used by the police are underhanded and in most cases tend to target even the innocent. Policing requires that the community members own this project, making it easier to stop intended criminal activities. The underlying factor, in this case, is the presence, and absence, of tourists. However, when the problem is identified, solutions are developed around it (Montolio & Planells-Struse, 2016).
Role of media in creating criminal masterminds
Research has been carried to determine how to prevent crimes by an environmental design. They argue that individuals break the law depending on the type of situation they are in. If their surrounding encourages heinous behavior, they will tend to lean towards that direction. The media has a role in creating criminal masterminds. Surette argues that in a culture that promotes the breaking of law, it is likely that the same will occur in an actual society. Mainstream media portrays them as being wealthy with numerous resources at their disposal while the hardworking persons are depicted as living under poor conditions (2014).
The basics for research and evaluation in criminal justice are that there are a perpetrator and a victim, who may be willing or coerced. The justice system is flawed, with most of its tenets remaining unchanged since independence. The United States has developed, but negative racism and profiling still form a fabric of the existing culture. Individuals are brought up with stereotypes which they later express when they join law enforcement. Maxfield reiterates that policy and practice are part of the solution in making criminal justice more fluid and effective (2015).
The criminal justice system is effective as long as its three parts are working together to prevent actual crimes and apprehend wrongdoers. Law enforcement, adjudication, and correction only serve their purpose if the offender is guilty and willing. However, sometimes law enforcement brings in the wrong people who are then forced to go through correctional facilities. When they come out, they decide to engage in activities that are punishable by law. Florida State has eighty-two attorneys, who are overworked, thirty-two of whom have the mandate to preside over large-scale criminal proceedings.
Civil liberties in Florida
The American Civil Liberties Union of Florida approximates that it costs $2.3 billion to run prisons. In any year, this number stands at 100000 people. This means that the ratio of incarcerated persons to those outside is 1:104. Further, out of 54 Miami residents, one is under supervision by the just supervision. This makes Florida the ninth state in the list of highest incarcerations. This situation has been created by a system that prefers punishment over reformation. Florida also enforces minimum sentences, which could be worked out in parole. The implication is that a convicted felon and a pick-pocket are likely to end up in the same cell in prison (ACLU-Fl, 2016).
The main problem of the justice system is that it does not include parole in its sentences. Often, this is given when an individual has spent so much time in prison that integration into society becomes a challenge. The system purports to encourage the development of young people and their potential in becoming better. However the same system subjects the young people convicted of crimes to the same system used for adults. While it is true that crimes are punishable by law, a distinction should be made between them.
Cases of race profiling are rife in the system, with certain members deemed more likely to commit certain crimes than others. While the states boast of equality in all opportunities and circumstances, it is true that the race problem will feature in these cases. Inadvertently, the same theory is applied during arrests and court hearings. As of 2009, the percentage of black males incarcerated was higher than that of white males. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that black incarcerations had reduced to approximately four percent of the population, but this alone affects people's perception towards certain races.
Flaws in criminal justice
It is, therefore, sufficient to state that while the criminal justice is flawed, racial profiling makes it less effective. The number of individuals incarcerated has to decline for the correctional system to be effective. Juvenile detentions need an overhaul because placing children who have committed capital offenses with the other ones only creates a new breed of criminals. An enforcement of crime reduction requires the force of the law, which in itself requires being changed. To date, African-American and Latino offenders are handed greater punishments than the remainder of the population. This culture dates back to the ages of slavery and the post-independence world. There is the perception that Caucasian and Asian people are smarter and less likely to commit blue collar crimes, making it difficult to sentence them. However, even those accused of sexual offenses and burglary still receive lighter punishments. The Death Penalty Information Center also records those white defendants who kill black people are less likely to receive the death sentence as compared to black defendants who kill white people.
The above are pointers to the existent problems in the society when it comes to criminal justice and crime prevention. The main factors that contribute towards crimes are poverty and the unequal distribution of resources, though, for some, crime is inherited like property. The purpose of research and evaluation is to identify the existing problems in the society and with the current justice system and its respective arms. Until the research statements can be acted upon, they remain to be theories. Researchers need to focus on suggesting solutions, instead of talking about existing problems for years on end.
Crime is likely to increase if the law is not changed to make everyone equal. Stating equality rights while abandoning some of them in the event of an offense constitutes an injustice on the part of the aggrieved. Problem-oriented policing involves the entire community, which has its aspects of racists, supremacists, and other elements. Acting upon dispatched information requires law enforcement officers to exercise fair judgment. The problem in Miami involves trafficking and armed robberies, and efforts should be made to bring the members of such gangs to justice. Petty crimes such as pick-pocketing are avoidable on individual levels. Wherever possible, private companies may be enlisted to participate in policing, especially in gated communities. Other areas have a more reliable source of intelligence, in the form of older citizens.
Altindag, D. T. (2014). Crime and international tourism.T Journal of Labor Research,T 35(1), 1-14
American Civil Liberties Union of Florida (March 2016). The Florida Campaign for Criminal Justice Reform Launches in Advance of Legislative Session, Criminal Justice
Crawford, T. A. M., & Evans, K. (2016). Crime prevention and community safety
Death Penalty Information Center. National Statistics on the Death Penalty and Race, Death Row Inmates since 1976
D'Orsogna, M. R., & Perc, M. (2015). Statistical physics of crime: A review.T Physics of life reviews,T 12, 1-21.
Eck, J., & Spelman, W. (2016). Problem oriented policing.T Washington, DC.
Gill, C., Weisburd, D., Telep, C. W., Vitter, Z., & Bennett, T. (2014). Community-oriented policing to reduce crime, disorder and fear and increase satisfaction and legitimacy among citizens: a systematic review.T Journal of Experimental Criminology,T 10(4), 399-428.
Iverson, S. V., & Jaggers, D. (2015). Racial profiling as institutional practice: Theorizing the experiences of black male undergraduates.T Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice,T 52(1), 38-49
Maxfield, M. G. (2015).T Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Cengage Learning
Montolio, D., & Planells-Struse, S. (2016). Does tourism boost criminal activity? Evidence from a top touristic country.T Crime & Delinquency,T 62(12), 1597-1623
Surette, R. (2014).T Media, crime, and criminal justice. Nelson Education
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