What is the hypothesis of the research?
The hypothesis of this study was to examine whether having friends who display specialization in specific deliquescence acts about other offensive types would predict an individual's tendency to display specialization in those same crime types. The hypothesis was to be determined by the act of employing both objective and perpetual measures of the peer deliquescence within most case would lead to the robustness of the findings
List and operationalize all independent and dependent variables examined.
The independent variable stands alone it is not manipulated by any other factor being measured. In this case, the independent variable is "having friends who show specialization in the specific acts of deliquescence "This does not depend on anything. The dependent variable, on the other hand, is a variable that is affected by the change in another variable, in this case, study the dependent variable would be "An individual's tendency to display specialization in predicting same crime types" It is important to understand the relationship between dependent variable and independent variable. The Independent variable is the one that causes changes in the dependent variable.
What method of data collection were use and the example examined?
The method of data collection that was used was the quantitative data collection method that was found to rely mostly on the random sampling and structured data collection method that would fit the diverse experience. In this case, the random sample was the data from Gang Resistance Education Training (G.R.E.A.T) and the national longitudinal on Adolescent health (Add Health) which was picked up randomly. This kind of data is believed to fit the diverse experience to pre-determined responses. In this case, the qualitative data will produce the results that are very easily summarized and generalized. The application of the quantitative data is in the testing of the hypothesis that is derived from the theory or rather have the ability to approximate the phenomenon of interest. In this case study, the hypothesis that was being tested was "Whether having friends who display specialization in specific deliquescence acts about other offensive types would predict individuals tendency to display specialization in those same crime types". Probability sampling may be used to select participants in any case
Discuss the prior literature reviewed and its relevance to the research problem. Do you believe the literature review is an adequate representation of all relevant studies?
The prior literature review were all in line with the hypothesis, but both raised questions about the authenticity of the results if the empirical formula were not used. Examples of the books used in the literature review were Basner (2012) who managed to prove the influence of peer pressure using the data from latent class analysis. Thomas (2013) using a nationally representative sample found out that adolescents had a high tendency of displaying deliquescence behavior to a very high degree of specialization. The above researchers were all in agreement with Niubertaal et al. (2011) who also found out that the period in which individuals displayed the largest diversity in offending was during the adolescent's period. Pubertal even though accepted to the evidence of the notable variation in some age groups. He further asserts that before quick conclusions are made very detailed empirical studies need to be made to determine how dependable the study was. Most literature reviewed on that topic had it that there was still room for further research
What do the findings suggest?
The findings from the hypothesis were accepted. It was very clear from the results of the researcher that peer pressure could influence the tendency of individuals to start committing crimes of the same type. The results from this experiments echoed what other scholars had asserted in the literature review hence it was not in a vacuum or isolation. A good example of correlation is when in the literature review Basner (2012) using the latent class analysis managed to prove that children from violent fathers had a much greater tendency to specialize in violence due to intergenerational transmission. Mc. Gloin et al. (2007) had the same sentiments and argued that even marriage could not change such behaviors. The only problem was that they did not analyze the problem empirically.
Can this research be generalized? Why or why not?
This research has proven in all odds that it cannot be relied upon, and there would be little or no associated accuracy with it if it were generalized. Despite the fact that it gives reliability indices consistent with the previous findings according to Mc.Gloin at al, and Osgood and Schreck, it confirms the theory of unreliable and incorrect measure of specialization. Most of the samples also give limited information to be relied upon. The variance is massive with the result indicating substantial differences in the tendency to specialize in theft, violence, and other issues. Moreover, all the three behaviors have a ratio higher than nine probably ascertaining that there were significant differences between the individual offenses and that the observed results were probably the result of chance and not the given treatment. Also, it is not clear at the end of the experiment that co-offending affects biases of peer influence. Lastly this research has only used adolescent aged individuals leaving out the adults, even though behavior may at times be carried forward, it is wrong to assume that adults will also show the same trend especially in matters of crimes. This research, therefore, fails to meet the generalization threshold.
How well do you believe the research design chosen was suited to the research question?
There is no doubt the research design was appropriate, it shows consistencies with previous research done by different authors indicating its suitability. The researcher makes sure first to have a local control or blocking of homogenous parameters that would have made the experiment biased to one direction. These parameters include age, gender, race or ethnic background among others. The questionnaire administered is also representative and cutting across all aspects of the study, in fact, the study is soo good that it gives sequential basis whether peer influence on delinquent is of a general tendency or is it specific to each case of crime. However, the findings do not meet the threshold to be used as general due to variations on a case by case basis. The variance proves massive and would not provide the basis for reliability. The design has however failed to bring out the relationship between the influence given by allies in frequency and qualitative delinquencies. This to me is unsatisfactory.
How clearly was the data presented and discussed? Do you believe the results are substantively important?
The presentation of data is superb, in fact, this is a situation where the author is very honest even though he has mixed findings, and he extrapolates them using both statements and illustrations making it easier for any reader to grasp. More should, however, have been done regarding graphs and comparison dendrograms or pie charts to illustrate specific differences between and within GREAT and ADDHEALTH findings. The discussion is also of help as it analyzes every component separately and almost gives a model specific to that aspect. Additional analysis has also been conducted to evaluate the robustness of the initial findings. The peer specializations first established if it was from real crime specific before being using a friend's specialization to access the other behaviors.
What additional questions or hypotheses are suggested by the study's result?
There are several additional questions that I would suggest for this study; I would have suggested the replication of the study in question using longitudinal network data and even added more friends to include gender from both sex and not just the one same-sex friend provided for in the study. The second hypothesis would have been on the influence brought by friends on types and frequencies of delinquency. Lastly the fact that some friends are engaging in delinquent acts because they have realized the appropriateness of the behavior in maintaining a friendship is a question that should have been given more attention.
What are some of the potential drawbacks of this research?
This research has not clearly established the influence of friends on delinquency. It has only used the same-sex friend for a study that would have been more appropriate if both sexes were used, with this trend one is left guessing how the left out friend would have responded. Secondly the fact that the study only involved adolescent age limits its ideal to be generalized to the public. Adults do not necessarily behave like adolescents especially in crime issues hence these results should further be explored to make any valid generalization. Adult is, in fact, less concerned with criminal activities hence the offending specialization, and versatility will obviously reduce or be totally removed if this study was to be carried out on adults
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