Unveiling Societal Dynamics: Sociological Paradigms, Liberty, Urbanization, and Political Systems

Published: 2024-01-23
Unveiling Societal Dynamics: Sociological Paradigms, Liberty, Urbanization, and Political Systems
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Politics Sociology Government Society
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1791 words
15 min read

Question 1: types of sociologic knowledge bases

The conflict Paradigm- states that society is usually in constant conflict, especially in the competition for limited resources to satisfy their unlimited wants. This leads to a class conflict between the bourgeoisie (owners of the means of production) and the proletariats (workers).

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The symbolic internationalist paradigm- views the interactions in society as an exchange of meaning using communication through language and symbols. It explains human interactions with objects and people based on the meanings given to these things.

The functionalist paradigm- views society as a social structure with different parts that play different roles in fulfilling human needs during social interactions. The various parts work together in the achievement of stability of the society.

Question 2: Meaning of Structural Functionalism

This is a view of society as a body with different parts/social structures. These social structures play an important role in the functioning of society's failure to which instability may be experienced in society. This sociological perspective is rooted in sociological fathers' works, including Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, and Robert Merton.

Emile Durkheim views society as a complex system with various social institutions like the family, the school, the religious institution, the scientific institution, and the political institution. Society is held by various similarities in values, culture, beliefs, and practices. He explains the theory of social fact: laws, values, customs, rituals, and moral values that govern the social interactions in a society. Social facts play important roles in making sure that society is stable. On the other hand, Robert Merton explains the law on manifest functions and latent functions of the social processes. Social processes with undesirable outcome from an individual are referred to as dysfunctions. On the other hand, Herbert Spencer viewed society as a human body with various organs that work together for the proper functioning of society. He explains these parts as the social institutions, including education, health care, religion, and economy, to mention a few.

Question 3: Define


It is the definition of decision-making based on one's actions. It explains how an individual tries to differentiate himself from others with some unique character traits. It explains how an individual influences social action.


It is a group of people who share common norms, values, language, customs, religion, and cultural practices. This social unit may be situated in a similar geographic area with a shared sense of identity.


It can be defined as the putting forward of agendas and policies that favor the original occupants of a geographical area against immigrants. It entails the support of restrictions on measures against the welfare of the immigrants. It is a measure against migration in favor of the natives.

Virtual Perspective

This is social groups' interaction in an organized way on the internet through various social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. It aims to attain certain objectives and goals of this group, like promoting certain perspectives to the larger internet community.


It is a learning process of the beliefs, cultural practices, norms, and ideologies of society. It entails the learned behavior acquired through the process of interaction with a certain group or community. This affects the individual's actions and influences, as well as his views towards certain societal issues.

Question 4: Paleolithic Age of the Primitive era

It is an era of early man characterized by life in the caves using stone to make certain tools. The main economic activity in this era was hunting and gathering. Tools in this era were made from bones, wood, and stones. The era dates back over 2.5 million years ago, with other economic activities like fishing being invented later. The period is divided into the Lower Paleolithic period, the Middle Paleolithic period, and the Upper Paleolithic period. Humans in this age include the Homo habilis and the homo pithecus. This age is based on Charles Darwin's evolution theory in the explanation of the origin of man.

Question 5: Sociological concept of liberty

Mills and Laski view liberty as the freedom that a person has in defining a course of action that he/she will take. John Mill encourages the use of liberty by the person in every way possible as long as he does not harm others through the harm principle. He cites the role rule of law in the enjoyment of rights and freedoms. He encourages the use of coercion and punishment when liberty is used to harm others.

Question 6: classifications of liberty

  1. Natural liberty - inborn freedom for one to do what he or she pleases
  2. Civic liberty - freedom enhanced by the rule of rule through the enjoyment of human rights and freedoms.
  3. Political liberty - liberty enhanced through participation in political affairs and activities in a country
  4. Personal liberty - the liberty to act without any external influences, especially on personal matters like clothing and food.
  5. National liberty - liberty of a national or a state usually enhanced by its sovereign character.
  6. Economic liberty - entails the freedom in earning one's living as well as spending it.

Question 7: Neoliberalism

A type of system enhanced by the reduction of government interference through a free market economy. It entails the privatization of government property and reduced government expenditure in the market to increase the private sector's role in the market. Neoliberalism has its various advantages, including increased profits and earnings by the private sector, hence increasing profit as tax for the government. At the same time, its disadvantages include reduced social benefits for society like health care and education.

Question 8: Assumptions of the Capitalist model

  • The profit motive concept
  • Increased competition
  • Minimum government intervention
  • Private ownership of property
  • A two-class economic system

Question 9: Classism and Social Inequality

Classism is the classification of people or various social groups according to their economic class of either poor or rich. It is concerned with the treatment of people based on their different social classes prescribed by society.

On the other hand, social inequality can be viewed as the unequal distribution of limited resources. Certain categories of persons get certain privileges based on race, religion, ethnicity, age, sex, and gender. Social inequality is a societal vice that can be eradicated through the even distribution of resources.

Question 10: Anthropocene

It is a geological era in which human activities are the main influence on the environment and climate. Human activities, including industrialization, have had adverse effects on climate, including global warming and adverse climate change. Deforestation as human activity has affected the climate negatively.

Question 11: Causes of Urbanization

  • Industrialization
  • Rural-urban migration
  • Increased employment opportunities
  • Improved infrastructure
  • Modernization of living lifestyles

Part B:

Negative political liberty and the harm principle

Through the harm principle, John Stuart Mill explains that an individual's actions should not go past a certain level that will harm other people. He explains that the use of power against one's will is only when its purpose is to protect others from harm. This is one of the limits of liberty in the enjoyment of one's rights and freedom. The use of law in determining the limits of liberty can be used to achieve this function. The principle explains that one should not be limited in the enjoyment of his rights and freedom unless it interferes with others. He argues that physical force and moral coercion in law can be used when an individual passes his liberty enjoyment to causing harm to other people. Causing harm to him, harming oneself should not be punishable, stating that it is beyond the state's justification. He explains that individual responsibility is only limited to oneself as long as it does not affect others.

Mill explains a person's responsibility for harm, stating that one should prevent it from happening. He explains the responsibility of warning those who are about to harm themselves and are unaware. Mill explains that repeat offenders should bear a greater punishment than first-time offenders because of the level of harm caused to society. He explains his view toward ascertaining vices, including gambling and fornication, stating that these vices should not be encouraged. He explains the issue of suicide, citing that one has no freedom to give up his freedom. His view on divorce is that marriage is a personal contract, and when a couple decides to divorce, no one should stop them.

On the other hand, political liberty is termed as freedom from oppression and force in making democratic choices in society examines liberty as merely being negative because it has a positive goal. He explains the negative effects of political liberty, including that of tyranny by the majority. He explains the role of the state in the determination of the quality of the state, in the long run, citing that, "a State which dwarfs its men, in order that they may be more docile instruments in its hands even for beneficial purposes—will find that with small men no great thing can really be accomplished."

The Solidaristic and Pluralistic Concept in the International Community

Pluralism can be viewed as a political governance system that has the peaceful co-existence of different groups with different interests and ideologies. Pluralism entails democratic property with many political parties in the running of a nation. This helps promote fairness in the running of the country. Pluralism tries to incorporate different members with different ideologies to help avoid extremism but rather engage in public dialogue for the benefit of all. This helps make sure that one political group does not dominate in the political arena but involves many other stakeholders in the country's running. The existence of a ruling party and the opposition parties in a country is a good example of pluralism.

Competition enhanced through pluralism plays a key role in maintaining a good democratic process in a society. Pluralism maintains that common goal attainment can be achieved even though there are differences portrayed in such a nation's governance. Countries with pluralistic ideas and systems have portrayed good governance compared to those with a single party as the ruling party.

A solidarity type of governance entails using one political party or system in the ruling of a country. This is usually based on the shared ideologies, interests, goals, and objectives of a nation in attaining its long-term and short-term goals. The single political party is a symbol of national unity, which leads to reduced resistance to achieving common goals. Different ideologies from people outside the party are not welcome, citing that they have to be members of the party. Solidarity systems have the benefit of shared unity and a common goal, which helps in the growth of a country. At the same time, its disadvantage includes the nonacceptance of other ideologies and a poor representation of people in the different political arena because of the existence of only a single political party.

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Unveiling Societal Dynamics: Sociological Paradigms, Liberty, Urbanization, and Political Systems. (2024, Jan 23). Retrieved from https://speedypaper.com/essays/unveiling-societal-dynamics-sociological-paradigms-liberty-urbanization-and-political-systems

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