|Type of paper:||Research paper|
|Categories:||Women Loyalty Pregnancy Social issue|
My latest version of my research question is based on a phenomenological research approach. The most recent version of my research question is: What are the social and economic lived experiences of teen mothers from low-income communities? Consequently, the phenomenon of interest to the study is the social and economic impacts of childhood pregnancy among young girls found in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. The phenomenon of interest is what the researchers want their studies to explore, predict, explain, or describe (Moran, Burson, & Conrad, 2016; Moran, Burson, & Conrad, 2019).
The first aspect of the phenomenon of interest to my proposed project is the social consequences of teen pregnancy in low-income communities. The term "social consequences" can be defined as the social outcomes that are linked to a particular phenomenon. In the current project, one of the social consequences of teen pregnancy is stigmatization, peer and parental rejection, and threats of violence (WHO, 2018). Another social effect of childhood pregnancy is an increased risk of domestic violence when adolescent girls are married before reaching 18 years (WHO, 2018). The second aspect of the phenomenon of interest to my proposed study is the economic consequences associated with adolescent pregnancy in low-income communities. There are various ways in which the economic impact of adolescent motherhood can be assessed, such as through employment, income, and literacy rates.
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
The term inclusion criteria refer to the key attributes, features, or characteristics of the target population that the researchers will utilize in addressing the research question (Patino & Ferreira, 2018; Waller, Farquharson, & Dempsey, 2015). The inclusion criteria are usually comprised of geographic, clinical, and demographic characteristics of the participants crucial in answering the research question. Consequently, in the proposed project, the inclusion criteria include teenage mothers below 18 years of age and teenage mothers in low-income communities. On the other hand, the term exclusion criteria refer to attributes of the potential research participants used to identify respondents who will not be included in the study because they cannot address the research question (EUPATI, 2019). The exclusion criteria in the proposed study include refusal to give informed consent, young mothers above the age of 18 years, and teenage from high-income communities.
Sample Size, Data Saturation, and Theoretical Saturation
The sample will be selected for the proposed project through purposive sampling. Noteworthy, it has been reported that purposive sampling is the best sampling technique for phenomenological research design (Paley, 2016; Schmidt & Brown, 2017). Purposive samples, being one of the qualitative samples, are usually small (Bazeley, 2018). Phenomenological studies have also been reported to utilize small samples (Petitta, Hartel, Ashkanasy, & Zerbe, 2018).
Past empirical studies which utilized phenomenology to investigate the issue of teen pregnancy have also employed small samples. For example, Pogoy, Verzosa, Coming, and Agustino (2014) utilized a sample of ten teenage mothers who were purposively chosen for the study. On the other hand, Dowden, Gray, White, Ethridge, Spencer, and Boston (2018) used a purposive sample of eight girls, aged 13-19. In another study, Aparicio, Birmingham, Rodrigues, and Houser (2019) utilized a purposive sample of three participants in a phenomenological study aimed at examining the respondents' experiences of teenage parenting. Consequently, for my proposed study, I will utilize the purposive sampling technique to select ten teenage mothers from low-income communities to participate in the study.
Data saturation, an essential aspect of qualitative studies, refers to an iterative process involving collection and transcription of initial data, immediate assessment of the data, and then continuing with data collection and assessment until nothing new is generated (Smith & Sparkes, 2016). In my proposed study, data saturation will be attained when there are no emergent patterns in the interview or when data related to the social and economic effects of teen pregnancy in low-income communities begin to repeat itself in the interviews and data analysis. On the other hand, theoretical saturation is reached when all of the key variations of the phenomenon of interest to the study have been identified and incorporated into an emerging theory (Guest, Bunce, & Johnson, 2006). Based on theoretical saturation, I will deliberately search for extreme variations of the social and economic effect of teenage pregnancy in low-income communities to exhaustion.
Privacy (Confidentiality and Anonymity) in Publication of Research Findings
If I were a participant in the proposed research project, I would like my data as well as my interview data to be kept confidential and anonymous. Confidentiality is the process by which any personal and identifiable information given by the participants are protected or not exposed to the public (McBride, 2016). Confidentiality of data is ensured through the removal of face sheets that have identifiers, for encryption of identifiable data, and use of study codes on data documents (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2019). Additionally, as a participant, I would like the anonymity of my data to be maintained. This can be achieved through the non-collection of participants' identifying information.
Aparicio, E. M., Birmingham, A., Rodrigues, E. N., & Houser, C. (2019). Dual experiences of teenage parenting and homelessness among Native Hawaiian youth: A critical interpretative phenomenological analysis. Child & Family Social Work, 24(2), 330-339. https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12618
Bazeley, P. (2018). A practical introduction to mixed methods for business and management. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Dowden, A. R., Gray, K., White, N., Ethridge, G., Spencer, N., & Boston, Q. (2018). A Phenomenological Analysis of the Impact of Teen Pregnancy on Education Attainment: Implications for School Counselors. Journal of School Counseling, 16(8), n8.
EUPATI. (2019). Exclusion criteria. Retrieved from https://www.eupati.eu/glossary/exclusion-criteria/
Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough?: An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 59-82. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X05279903
McBride, N. (2016). Intervention research: A practical guide for developing evidence-based school prevention programs. New York, NY: Springer.
Moran, K. J., Burson, R., & Conrad, D. (2016). The doctor of nursing practice scholarly project. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Moran, K. J., Burson, R., & Conrad, D. (2019). The doctor of nursing practice project. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Paley, J. (2016). Phenomenology as qualitative research: A critical analysis of meaning attribution. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis.
Patino, C. M., & Ferreira, J. C. (2018). Inclusion and exclusion criteria in research studies: Definitions and why they matter. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, 44(2), 84. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37562018000000088
Petitta, L., Hartel, C. E. J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Zerbe, W. (2018). Individual, relational, and contextual dynamics of emotions. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.
Pogoy, A. M., Verzosa, R., Coming, N. S., & Agustino, R. G. (2014). Lived experiences of early pregnancy among teenagers: a phenomenological study. European Scientific Journal, 10(2).
Schmidt, & Brown, J. M. (2017). Evidence-based practice for nurses. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Smith, B., & Sparkes, A. C. (2016). Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. (2019). Protecting Confidentiality & Anonymity. Retrieved from https://www.irb.vt.edu/pages/confidentiality.htm
Waller, V., Farquharson, K., & Dempsey, D. (2015). Qualitative social research: Contemporary methods for the digital age. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
WHO (2018). Adolescent pregnancy. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/adolescent-pregnancy
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