|Type of paper:||Dissertation chapter|
|Categories:||Nursing care Emotional intelligence Human services|
Emotional intelligence is the ability to express or control one's emotions and handle interpersonal relationships empathetically. Emotional intelligence, especially among nursing leaders, is regarded to have a significant impact on health care provision in hospitals. This is because the leader's emotional intelligence determines how best the nurses cooperate in their duties as they take care of the safety of patients. The connection that exists between nursing leaders' emotional intelligence and the safety of patients is critical in understanding the healthcare provider's success. This paper explores the relationship between the emotional intelligence of nursing leaders and the safety of patients in accredited and non-accredited hospitals in the Al Qassem region. Based on research, the paper presents an in-depth discussion of the findings in relation to each of the four research hypotheses and places them in the context of the works of literature with justification. Moreover, the paper also discusses published research and other articles in this field of study as they either support or contradict the findings.
Hypothesis 1: The level of leaders' EI in an accredited hospital is higher than in a non-accredited hospital at AL Qassem Region.
There is no significant difference in the level of leaders' emotional intelligence in an accredited hospital and non-accredited hospital at Al Qassem region. The study considered three variables to test this hypothesis. The variables included gender, marital status, and type of hospital. By the use of an independent sample t-test, the study found no significant difference in the mean level of emotional intelligence between female and male nurse leaders who participated in the research study (p>0.05). Apart from that, the study also showed no significant difference in the mean level of emotional intelligence between married or single nurse leaders (p>0.05). Moreover, there was also no significant difference in the mean level of emotional intelligence of nurse leaders working in accredited and non-accredited hospitals (p>0.05). The type of hospital where the nurse leader works do not affect the emotional intelligence provided other factors remain the same. The emotional intelligence of nurse leaders is dependent on individual growth and development. Therefore, the nurse leader working in an accredited hospital may not necessarily score a higher mean level of emotional intelligence than the one working in a non-accredited hospital (Grindel, 2016). Emotional intelligence entails being aware of one's emotions, being able to control emotions, and establishing good relationships with others. As nurse leaders, the interpersonal relationships between them and nurses, as well as patients, play a critical role in ensuring smooth health care operation (Henry, 2017). The emotional intelligence becomes inherent in an individual nurse leader based on their capacity to empathize with others, practice self-awareness, become self-motivated, practice assertive communication, and maintain a positive attitude. These values are independent of the type of hospital where the nurse leader works, whether accredited or non-accredited (Parnell & Onge, 2015). The nurse leader's emotional intelligence wholly depends on their personal development in the aforementioned domains.
Hypothesis 2: The level of patient safety in an accredited hospital is higher than a non-accredited hospital at AL Qassem Region.
The level of patient safety in an accredited hospital is higher than a non-accredited hospital in Al Qassem region. In the study, this hypothesis was tested using the independent sample t-test. The level of patient safety was tested using patient safety domains such as work area, supervisor, communication, frequency of reported events, and hospital to determine the total patient safety in accredited and non-accredited hospitals. Based on the findings, there was no significant difference in the mean level of total patient safety in accredited and non-accredited hospitals at Al Qassem region (p>0.05). However, the study found a significant difference in the "hospital" domain, where the p-value was less than 0.05 (p<0.05). This means that the level of patient safety in an accredited hospital is higher than the level of patient safety in non-accredited hospitals in the Al Qassem region. For that reason, the study confirmed this hypothesis as real. The accredited hospitals have been assessed to ensure a high quality of performance in accordance with the existing standards. Having met the set standards of operation, accredited hospitals may have a significant advantage over non-accredited hospitals in providing a significantly higher level of patient safety (Murray et al., 2018). Moreover, accredited hospitals have significant financial support from the government that enables them to meet the necessary requirements to ensure a high level of patient safety (Parnell & Onge, 2015). The privileges available for accredited hospitals give them an upper hand to excel in the provision of significantly high levels of patient safety as compared with the non-accredited hospitals.
Hypothesis 3: There is a positive correlation between levels of EI leadership and patient safety in hospitals in the AL Qassem Region.
The findings of the study confirmed this hypothesis as accurate. The levels of emotional intelligence of nurse leaders was tested against such domains as the quality of work area, supervisor, communication, frequency of events reported, patient safety grade, hospital, and the number of events reported. The study utilized the Pearson Correlation method. Based on the findings, a medium positive correlation existed between patient safety and the quality of the work area of the hospital (p<0.001). According to this result, the increase in quality of work area in a hospital contributes significantly to a resultant increase in the emotional intelligence of the nurse leader. The increased emotional intelligence leadership consequently contributes to the adequate safety of patients receiving care at the hospital. Apart from that, the study also found a significant positive correlation between patient safety and the emotional intelligence leadership in the domains of the supervisor, patient safety grade, and communication (Parnell & Onge, 2015). However, the study found no significant correlation between patient safety in the hospital with emotional intelligence leadership in domains such as frequency of events reported, number of events reported, and hospital (p>0.05). EI leadership provides a conducive environment for the provision of adequate patient care. The nurse leaders using EI leadership enhance the freedom of nurses in conducting their duties freely without unnecessary limitations (Grindel, 2016). Consequently, nurses feel motivated to provide adequate safety for patients (Codier & Codier, 2017). Therefore, emotional intelligence can be said to play a significant role in ensuring patient safety in hospitals in the Al Qassem region.
Hypothesis 4: Nurse leaders' sociodemographic characteristics will predict their EI.
The findings of this study disapproved of this hypothesis. One Way ANOVA method was used to determine the differences in the level of emotional intelligence with regard to nurse leaders' sociodemographic characteristics such as age groups, qualifications, experience, and job title. Nurse leaders were categorized under three age groups; 21-30, 31-40, and 41-50 years. The study found no significant difference in the mean level of nurse leaders' emotional intelligence with regard to age groups (p>0.05). Apart from that, the qualification of nurse leaders was categorized as master, bachelor, or diploma. Using One Way ANOVA, no significant difference was found in the mean level of emotional intelligence with regard to any of the aforementioned qualifications. The experience of nurse leaders was categorized under 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, and 21-30 years while their job titles included nursing director, nursing supervisor, head nurse, and charge nurse. With the use of One Way ANOVA, there was no significant difference in the mean level of emotional intelligence with regard to both experience and job title of nurse leaders. The findings of this study found no significant difference in nurse leaders' sociodemographic characteristics with their emotional intelligence. However, the findings of this study contradict the findings of other researchers (Codier & Codier, 2015; Grindel, 2016). According to Codier and Codier (2015), age groups may have a significant impact on the emotional intelligence of a nurse leader. The experience of the nurse leader may also produce a significant impact on emotional intelligence (Grindel, 2016). Nurse leaders with more extensive work experience are regarded to have acquired advanced work skills that enable them to control interpersonal relationships between them, nurses, and patients (Codier & Codier, 2017). The emotional intelligence can be said to come with exceptional work experience. Nurse leaders with exceptional work experience have also mastered the relevant attitude, self-awareness, and motivational factors that help them cope up well with the health care operations (Coladonato & Manning, 2017). Therefore, some sociodemographic characteristics can be useful in predicting the emotional intelligence of nurse leaders.
In a nutshell, the first hypothesis is not valid. There is no significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence between nurse leaders in accredited hospitals and those in non-accredited hospitals in the Al Qassem region. The emotional intelligence of nurse leaders is dependent on personal growth and development. The second hypothesis is correct. The level of patient safety in an accredited hospital is significantly higher than that in non-accredited hospitals. Accredited hospitals have been assessed and ascertained to have met the set standards necessary for the delivery of adequate health care services amicably. The third hypothesis is correct. The emotional intelligence leadership has a significant positive correlation with patient safety at the Al Qassem region. Emotional intelligence provides a conducive environment where nurses work freely to ensure patient safety in the hospital. Finally, the fourth hypothesis is not valid. The sociodemographic characteristics of nurse leaders cannot be used to predict their emotional intelligence. The study found no significant correlation between nurse leaders' sociodemographic characteristics with their emotional intelligence.
Codier, E., & Codier, D. (2015). A model for the role of emotional intelligence in patient safety. Asia-Pacific journal of oncology nursing, 2(2), 112. Doi: 10.4103/2347-5625.157594
Codier, E., & Codier, D. D. (2017). Could emotional intelligence make patients safer?. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 117(7), 58-62. Doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000520946.39224.db
Coladonato, A. R., & Manning, M. L. (2017). Nurse leader emotional intelligence: How does it affect clinical nurse job satisfaction?. Nursing Management, 48(9), 26-32. Doi: 10.1097/01.NUMA.0000522174.00393.f2
Grindel, C. G. (2016). Clinical leadership: A call to action. Medsurg Nursing, 25(1), 9.
Henry, D. (2017). Emotional Intelligence. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 117(10), 13. Doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000525856.75439.4a
Murray, M., Sundin, D., & Cope, V. (2018). The nexus of nursing leadership and a culture of safer patient care. Journal of clinical nursing.
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