Free Essay: The Current Effects of Oil Activities in the Niger Delta

Published: 2024-01-14
Free Essay: The Current Effects of Oil Activities in the Niger Delta
Essay type:  Analytical essays
Categories:  Economics Energy World
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1571 words
14 min read

Analysis has drawn on the effects of petroleum on the environment and the local population from scholars who try to research the negative influence of oil production and extraction on the environment and humans despite having multiple benefits for the well-being of a region. A lot of research from world researchers has drawn on petroleum activities in the Delta Region. The study adopted a descriptive methodology with such a research study of Nigeria's Niger Delta Region. In term of the topic of study, secondary data from secondary sources was collected.

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In order to make conclusions and provide recommendations, analysis of the data collected was taken out. The findings of this study indicate that the extraction and transport of crude oil has serious but deadly impacts on the environment as well as the local community in the region. The results show that the production and transport of crude oil in the area is rapidly leading to ecological destruction as well as posing threats to the local population in terms of human health. The study outlines some ideas that can help tackle oil related problems and issues in the Niger Delta region.

Acronyms and Abbreviations:

  • Fight Mantra Resulting in Domination PubMed - Player Unknowns
  • NOSDRA- Detention and Response Agency for the National Oil Spill
  • EBSCO-Company Elton B. Stephens
  • Current Environmental and Health Issues Associated with Crude Oil Extraction and Transportation in Niger-Delta Oil-Producing Region of Nigeria


1.1 Background

Over the past few decades, oil operations in the Niger Delta Region have had a major effect on the Nigerian economy (Ite et al., 2013; Medugu, 2012). Thousands of local people are employed by the industry, thereby contributing to the overall growth and enhancement of the national economy (Kadafa, 2012). Petroleum activities in the area, however have translated into extreme environmental conditions as well as complications for human health. Processes and petroleum operations as well as impacting members of the community in the area, leakages have led to significant environmental pollution. One such community in South East Nigeria is the Edabgeri community in the River State. Around nine states form the Niger Delta (Ite et al, 2013). This region is home to over forty oil wells with multiple oil pipelines leading to a Shell Flow Station in an adjacent city (Nwuche and Anyanwu, 2011) From 2006 to 2009, covering three years.

Since these pipelines have been vigorously used and inadequate maintenance has been provided, wear and tear has caused these oil spills to take a severe toll on them (Odjuvwuederhie and Gordon, 2006). The local fisheries sector faces some negative outcomes. The ability of agricultural land to help poor fishermen and farmers in the area is increasingly undermined by severe environmental pollution (Odjuvwuederhie and Gordon, 2006). Oil spillage results in oil accumulation in the soil and releases it with inundation every year (Eweje, 2006). Approximately five to ten (5-10%) of the mangrove forests in this region have been affected by leaks, with most of the above-ground pipelines and flow lines built and estimated to be over twenty (20) years old (Ite et al., 2013). This thesis explores the impact of crude oil production and transportation activities related to petroleum in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.

1.2 Research Aim and Research Question

The paper aims to address the question: What are all the impacts of oil extraction and transport in Nigeria's Niger Delta Area on the environment, health as well as decommissioning?

1.3 Research Objectives

Thus this research will be driven by four objectives from the subject of the study:

  1. To define, explore and examine the environmental impacts and risks involved with oil production and transport within the Niger Delta region;
  2. To identify decommissioning practices and strategies and their impact on the environment and host communities;
  3. To achieve its desired targets, this research used thematic analysis. In each goal, the study developed a theme to try to examine environmental and health impacts;
  4. To examine the decommissioning problems associated with the production and transportation of crude oil.

1.4 Statement of the Problem

Occupational and income losses have been specifically related to the production and transportation of oil, resulting in voluntary and involuntary displacement (Opukri&Ibaba, 2008; Omofonmwan&Osaretin, 2009). This causes local economies to fail without providing alternatives to increased levels of poverty and malnutrition among local communities (O'Rourke & Connolly, 2003). Many of the locals struggle to buy food, having lost their prevailing occupations due to noise, contamination of water and soil and environmental degradation resulting from oil extraction and transport.

In addition, this paper will include feedback that will help to strengthen the response of oil production companies to the difficulties they face on a daily basis operation. And while major advancements and changes have been made in the oil sector, allowing the industry to make an enormous contribution over the past few decades to Nigeria's energy demand and economy (Omofonmwan and Odia, 2009), these advances have had negative effects on the physical and biological environment and adverse effects on the health conditions of the host communities living in the region. Environmental pollution and human-related diseases associated with the production and transport of petroleum in the Niger Delta Region (Bayode and Adewumni, 2010). While Nigeria is ranked as the world's 8th largest producer of oil, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) states that the country is ranked as one of the world's poorest nations as measured by the Human Development Index of the UNDP (Ite et al., 2016).

Several study studies and experts have carried out research and attempted to suggesting alternative solutions to these problems, overcome this problem. Furthermore, federal legislation has been passed with a simple and straightforward procedure precise view of oil industry control in the Niger Delta. The Government of Nigeria has played a very significant role in cooperation with other foreign organizations. Function in international law implementation, which seeks to add health to the oil sector. This offers detailed evidence of the emerging Impacts on the climate, health and decommissioning of petroleum production and transport. Specifically, little research has been carried out on the position that Multinational corporations regarding the defence of the environment, local connectivity and the general economy.

Literature Review

2.1 Literature Review Overview

The Niger Delta Region and the host communities geographically situated in the Gulf of Guinea in Equatorial West Africa, the Niger Delta region is between 30 and 60 latitudes and 50 and 80 longitudes, 0-10 m above sea level average There are nine states in the Niger Delta Region that cover 185 regions of local government, as per the government of Nigeria. Abia, Ondo, Edo, Bayelsa, Imo, Ibom, Akwa. Among the nations, the Cross River and Rivers with the other oil-rich states occupying about 75,000 square kilometres, the small islands and creeks of the Niger Delta Region make up 7.5 percent of Nigeria's land mass (Ugochukwu, Collins, and Ertel, 2008, p141). The Niger Delta covers a 112,000 square kilometre region of dialects.

The cornerstones of Niger Delta society are farming, trade and fishing facilities. The education and health sectors provide seven percent of the population. With an annual infant mortality rate of 120 per 1000 births, many people are unemployed and sick (Francis et al., 2011.).

It is said that the oil rich area is the third largest wetland in the world (Achebe, Nneke&Anisiji, 2002, p.4.). Natural resources such as oil and gas are rich in the Delta zone (Haack et al., 2000, p.213). Studies show that there are three petroleum systems in the Niger Delta zone - lacustrine, marine, and deltaic, reflecting the Lower Cretan, Upper Cretan, Lower Paleocene, and Tertiary, respectively (Haack et al., 2000, p.213). More than 800 communities involved in petroleum production are spread across the Niger Delta Region.

2.2 Negative Effects of Crude Oil Extraction and Transportation

In 2010, Africa produced 13 percent of the total amount of oil produced globally, with Nigeria's Niger Delta Region accounting for 7.25 percent of the total oil produced globally (Kebede, John Kagochi and Jolly, 2010, p.532). For 7% of oil imports, the European Union relied on Sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for 314 million barrels, an estimated $65 trillion. In the upstream region, close to 500 companies are engaged in the extraction and transportation of oil, with new markets in Asia and the Gulf States. These firms show a strong interest in the region's oil exploits (Kabede, 2011, p.334). In spite of all these developments, however the host communities and their economic status continue to languish in poverty with extreme environmental degradation and human health problems.

2.2.1 Environmental Degradation

The socio-economic and environmental effects of oil extraction and transport on host communities living in the Delta Area were determined in a qualitative study conducted earlier (Agbogidi, Okonta, and Dolor, 2005, p.173). The research found that petroleum exploitation activities are causing significant harm to farmlands and water bodies due to the spillage of oil that has compromised community agricultural development. In addition, the findings have showed that oil spills and oil production increase tree cutting (Agbogidi, Okonta, &Dolor, 2005, p.174).

A geospatial study of the distribution and vulnerability of oil in Nigeria's Niger Delta region showed that the occurrence of spillage during extraction and transport of oil could have a calamitous impact on the climate (Whanda et al., 2016, p.438). The results of this study showed that the impact of the oil spill was determined by the amount of oil, the distance from oil production and the distribution facilities (Kadafa, 2). Another analysis from one of the Niger - delta region states, Delta State, sought to investigate the effect of oil leaks on agricultural production and farm income (Odjuvwuederhie and Gordon, 2006). The study found that oil spillage decreases crop yield, has an effect on farmland viability, and lowers farm income.

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