Different substances lead to the cause of fire in many scenarios with a higher explosive rate. Furniture in the house affects the oxidation of fire, increasing the threats. As a result, it is cumbersome for one to put out a fire, especially where household furniture has stretched to the furniture (Bakar & Sharikin, 2015). Furniture has a higher oxidation rate, which results in loss of the fire if it is not properly managed. On the contrary, beddings have played their role when it comes to the loss of fire, as they increase the rate of oxidation. The rate of oxidation on furniture is slightly higher compared to the furniture. They are prone to quick burning; hence, they can play a huge role when it comes to the loss of fire.
The Stages of a Fire
The reporting of the fire indicates that the building was already galvanized with the fire. However, there are serval stages of fire that are depicted in the entire premise, as the firefighters battled with the situation with no vail (Murphy & Fryer, 2019). At the time of reporting, the reporter covering traffic news, noticed a cloud of black smoke in the air. As a result, this indicated the third stage of fire (flame) after the ignition of the fire was successful. In this case, the bursting of flames requires enough temperature to activate the chemical kinetics within the materials in the scenario. The ordering of attack on the D-1 and B-1 indicates a significant stage of fire and how quickly the fire could spread in the next section. Both sides reported extreme heat and smoke with no fire. The intense heat on metallic frames that supported the timber in the building proved to be catastrophic, as they conducted enough heat to ignite fire. There were possibilities of pyrolysis (space heater), which is a good source of incubating fire. The space heater increases the temperature to a poor conductor of heat, concentrating enough heat to lead into smoldering.
The End Results of High Temperature, With Both Combustible Material and Oxygen
The presence of high temperatures is hazardous and highly dangerous especially to the ignition of a fire. Pyrolysis (space heater), brings about the provision of enough heat, which is enough to start a fire. On the contrary, there are different oxidation material, which increases the possibilities of fire ignition or smoldering. In this case, sufficient temperature is catastrophic in providing the essential ingredient for pyrolysis. The restriction of these elements in one apartment increases the possibility of igniting a flame easier, without considering the concept of smoldering, which may be visible and easy to fight.
The Spread of Fire
The spread of fire is affected by several factors ranging from the weather to materials. Weather is a universal accelerator of fire, especially when the fire is in an open area, where wind interferes with the spread (Nine, Tran, Tung, Kabiri, & Losic, 2017). Secondly, element in the fire plays a critical role in dictating the range, and the intensity of heat. Furniture and beddings are crucial when it comes to the spreading of fire from one room to the other. Furniture produces heat, which increases the temperatures in the surrounding areas. As a result, fire happening in one place will quickly spread to the other one, due to the increased temperatures, which may initiate pyrolysis.
The Incidents in Apartment 2-B, 2-C, or Even 2-H
Smoke explosion, proved the search and rescue mission so impossible, that the group had to backtrack from conducting their activity due to excessive heat and poor visibility.
Flammability and Combustibility
Flammability refers to the material, which is flammable at room temperature, while combustion refers to the content, which requires extreme heat to ignite or burst into flames. In 1990, the building has added another floor, with a gable style lightweight wood roof (Gann, Friedman, & National 2015). Wood is flammable, which does not require a higher temperature for ignition. The gypsum plasterboard on both the walls and the ceiling did not contribute to the burning of the apartment but instead provided an avenue to transport combustion gases during the intense period.
The Differences Between Flashover, and Smoke Explosion.
Flashover is defined as a cool area that is relatively away from the burning region, but soon enough, it becomes hot enough to ignite. In the scenario, the second floor was highly heated, which slowly ignited the upper part of the building. Smoke explosion refers to the intense and concentrated levels of smoke that limited visibility in a fire incident. The group on the search and rescue mission was unable to continue with their goal due to the intense smoke explosion.
Bakar, A., & Sharikin, A. (2015). Characterization of fire properties for coupled pyrolysis and combustion simulation and their optimized use (Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University). http://vuir.vu.edu.au/31007/1/ABU%20BAKAR%20Ariza%20-%20Thesis.pdf
Gann, R. G., Friedman, R., & National Fire Protection Association (associated with work). (2015). Principles of fire behavior and combustion. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Murphy, S. K., & Fryer, J. L. (2019). Fire regimes of juniper communities in the Columbia and northern Great basins. In: Fire Effects Information System. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory. https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/fire_regimes/Columbia_GB_juniper/all.html.
Nine, M. J., Tran, D. N., Tung, T. T., Kabiri, S., & Losic, D. (2017). Graphene borate is an efficient fire retardant for cellulosic materials with multiple and synergetic modes of action. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 9(11), 10160-10168. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b00572
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