|Type of paper:||Article review|
|Categories:||Medicine Literature review Anxiety disorder|
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a condition where people often worry irrepressibly about everyday situations and occurrences (Gale & Davidson, 2007). According to Gale and Davidson (2007), GAD is a condition of prolonged anxiety and apprehension about different events and thoughts that a patient considers inappropriate or excessive. With the limited research on GAD, it is clear that the condition is hard to describe categorically. The existing criteria for diagnosing the disorder are evolving with time. A study conducted by Gale and Davidson (2007) showed that about 1-5% of the general population of the United States has GAD. Most people with GAD often have other disorders with most of them reporting to have one or different levels of disabilities. Importantly, GAD is a condition that worsens the extent of any other ailment in a patient. Moreover, people with GAD as the only condition are likely to develop other disorders. Therefore, this paper is a literature review on Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD) that analyzes some common symptoms, diagnostics, and probable consequences of the ailment for people with GAD.
Literature Review on Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety disorders are common among young people. If the condition remains untreated, it could result in substantial impairment and psychopathology. According to Tran, Jastrowski Mano, Anderson Khan, Davies, and Hainsworth (2016), the perception of anxiety has progressed over the last 25 years. Most facilities use Evidence-based Treatments (EBTs) that have proved effective in treating this disorder. Importantly, considering that the youth are the most critical individuals in the population today, this literature review will primarily focus on GAD among young people.
Anxiety Disorders Among the Young People
According to Tran et al. (2016), research has shown the need for routine screening among young people with abdominal pains. Consequently, the author asserted that anxiety conditions are often prevalent among children experiencing chronic illnesses. The researchers estimated that about 12-29% of the youth often experience different forms of chronic pain with others having recurring pains in their abdomens. Importantly, Tran et al. (2016) indicated that the underlying evidence in the literature showed a significant relationship between the development of anxiety and distress. Similarly, Swan et al. (2018) reported that anxiety disorders are a common health concern that affects mostly young people. With the high prevalence rate of anxiety among the youth, the condition often leads to poor academic, social, occupational, and family functioning. Most of these consequences can prolong to adulthood and cause substantial effects when left untreated.
Further, van Doorn, Bodden, Jansen, Rapee, and Granic (2018) indicated that despite the existing discrepancies in the literature on anxiety disorders, most children report high-intensity levels, frequency, and severity of the anxiety symptoms as opposed to the findings of the parents' reports. Van Doorn et al. (2018) further indicated that parents report symptoms of GAD and social anxiety disorder while children report on separation anxiety disorder. The research on anxiety disorders is limited since parents and children report on observable components that include separation and social anxiety. Very few people report on less visible symptoms that fall under GAD and panic disorder. Using the analysis provided by van Doorn et al. (2018), it is clear that GAD is a condition that cannot be diagnosed using observable components.
In most cases, parents and their children report on the noticeable symptoms that fall under separation and social anxiety disorders. In reality, such people may be victims of GAD. Separation anxiety disorders can be a subtype of generalized anxiety disorder. However, Schneider et al. (2013) indicated that the intervention provided for children with separation anxiety varies from other anxiety disorders since it centers on the primary caregiver or parent training.
Herres et al. (2019) conducted research that showed that anxiety disorders are rampant in the world today. The author asserted that one-third of all the adolescents with GAD are likely to have suicidal thoughts. The existing evidence stipulated by the authors showed that people with anxiety disorders were likely to contemplate suicide. The relationship between intense anxiety and non-anxiety disorders hold even when accounting for life stressors as common causative factors. Further, Swan et al. (2018) indicated that some of the harmful effects of GAD included missing out on critical opportunities for social, academic, and occupational functioning. In addition to that, the author stipulated that anxiety disorders often lead to decreased life satisfaction, family issues, poor quality of relationships, and difficulty in adjustment from childhood to adulthood. Other comorbid conditions such as psychopathology also could result from untreated anxiety disorders. Other harmful consequences of untreated GAD include substance abuse that could eventually lead to criminal or delinquent behavior. Mainly, this analysis on anxiety disorders and their adverse effects on children show the need for intervention measures that will be discussed in the next section.
Diagnostic Procedures for GAD
According to Whiteside, Sattler, Hathaway, and Douglas (2016), structured interviews, which are a form of evidence-based assessment, could help enable therapists to diagnose anxiety disorders. The author argued that structured interviews could help in ensuring that therapists gather unprejudiced data and increase the specificity of information while also enabling the evaluation of a variety of diagnoses. In addition to that, patients often have a positive perception of structural interviewing. The approach could be of help in promoting therapeutic relationship by enabling physicians to understand the main problems that a patient encounters. Further, Whiteside et al. (2016) argued that rating scales, together with structured interviews, could be a significant part of the evidence-based assessment. Primarily, they provide a cost-effective solution that aid in timely identification of symptoms and enhance tracking of the patient's progress. Different rating scales have been developed to aid in the assessment of anxiety disorders among children. Whiteside et al. (2016) in the research paper mainly emphasized the need for the evidence-based evaluation, particularly the use of rating scales and structured interviews in identifying symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders.
Similarly, Herres et al. (2019) researched identified suicidal cases among youths diagnosed with anxiety disorders. The criteria used in selecting participants was the use of self-reports and interview data, which stresses the need for therapists to use structured interviews in the diagnostic processes. All the symptoms identified using the interviews should match the diagnostic criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders. Therefore, this section describes the best diagnostic tests for Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD).
Intervention Measures for GAD
According to Schneider et al. (2013), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program could be useful in providing the necessary treatment and intervention for children with anxiety disorders. Mainly, this intervention often includes parental training. Primarily, CBT is an intervention aimed at improving overall mental health among people with different mental disorders. The main focus of the CBT programs is challenging and changing some of the harmful cognitive behavior and improving an individual's ability to regulate their emotions. Eventually, the intervention leads to the development of individual strategies that aid in ensuring that an individual copes with the existing problems that lead to anxiety disorders. It is worth noting that the environment often induces most of the cases of GAD cases reported. With this in mind, the best treatment approach should include one that trains parents on the best techniques of taking care of their young ones. Swan et al. (2018), on the other hand, conducted an analysis of the importance of CBT in providing treatment to persons with anxiety disorders. The findings showed that CBT helped in improving the school performance of learners with GAD. The participants used in the research by Swan et al. (2018) showed that some of the symptoms faded away through the follow-up period after CBT intervention practices.
Analysis of Sources Used in the Literature Review
In this literature review, this paper utilizes a variety of sources. The sources were credible since most of the authors of the articles used are highly qualified to air their opinions and research findings on anxiety disorders. One of the articles used in this paper is titled Results from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Longitudinal Study (CAMELS): Functional Outcomes by Swan et al. (2018). The article was chosen for this review since it analyzes the different treatment outcomes for people with anxiety disorders. The authors showcased their skills on the different intervention practices for childhood anxiety disorders and discussed them articulately. Besides, the researchers analyzed some harmful effects of anxiety disorders. Secondly, this paper utilizes the article, Patterns of Anxiety Symptoms in Pediatric Chronic Pain as Reported by Youth, Mothers, and Fathers by Tran et al. (2016). The paper focuses on pain as one of the causative factors for anxiety disorders among young people. Importantly, the authors identified the variance in the reports provided by both parents and children during the diagnostic processes. The language used in the article is clear, and the objective of the article is achieved adequately. However, the paper would have been more elaborate if the authors provided intervention measures for anxiety disorders in instances where chronic pain is the primary causative factor.
The third article used in this literature review, Linking Mother-Child Discrepancies to Behavioral Observations of Children's Anxiety by van Doorn et al. (2018) focused on the observed and non-observed symptoms of anxiety disorders. The paper is articulate as it explains on the existing discrepancies on reports given by mother and children when providing some of their symptoms of anxiety disorders during the diagnosis process. One of the reasons for selecting this paper for this review was the author's clear explanations of the existing discrepancies in the reports provided by parents and their children. The fourth article used in this review is Differences in Suicide Risk Severity among Suicidal Youth with Anxiety Disorders by Herres et al. (2019). The paper majors on suicide as one of the consequences of untreated anxiety disorders, especially among young people. Importantly, the authors focused on the severity rate of suicide among youths with anxiety disorders, which aided in understanding GAD in this review.
The fifth article, Use of Evidence-Based Assessment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders in Community Practice by Whiteside et al. (2016), was selected due to its unique nature. The authors focused on the most suitable diagnostic measure for anxiety disorders. The researchers showcased their skills and knowledge in dealing with anxiety disorders evident from their accurate explanations of evidence-based assessments and their importance as well as drawbacks in the identification of anxiety disorders.
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