Short Independent Research ProjectIntroduction

Published: 2022-12-05
Short Independent Research ProjectIntroduction
Type of paper:  Problem solving
Categories:  Psychology Economics Analysis Personality Society
Pages: 3
Wordcount: 757 words
7 min read

In this time of globalization, countries need to improve the expectations for everyday comforts of their open. Enhancements in the expectations for everyday comforts originate from financial advancement. In this way, economic advancement is the essential target of all countries in this world. Monetary promotion requires commercial development and the necessary alterations (Bashir, 2011). Along these lines, economic growth is fundamental for financial improvement. Here an inquiry emerges, that, how countries can advance economic development? There are such a significant number of parts of the economy which can commit to financial development. Fare area is a standout amongst the most vital parts which can quicken the financial development. This answer began a discussion among market analysts, specialists, strategy creators, and research organizations, regardless of whether this introduction leads to fiscal growth or financial development lead to trades advancement.

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Capital is considered as the blood of the economy. It is hypothesized that Gross Capital Formation (K) and Gross Domestic Product are related. The increment in capital prompts more elevated amount of speculation, development of new generation plants and new business openings. In this manner, equity and yield are straightforwardly related (Bashir, 2011).


The present examination goes for researching the fare drove development theory in Pakistan. In light of the target, the investigation pursues the Solow long-run development show that speculates a generation work relating yield to the inputs. The Solow Growth display when all is said in the done frame can be exhibited as pursues; Gross domestic product = f (K, L). Solow Growth Model is reached out by including three increasingly essential factors crucial for financial development in Pakistan. Solow Growth Model in the expanded structure is introduced in the following condition structure: GDP = f (K, L, X, C, T). Capital is considered as the blood of the economy. It is conjectured that Gross Capital Formation (K) and Gross Domestic Product are decidedly related (Bashir, 2011). The increment in capital prompts more elevated amount of venture, development of new creation plants and new work openings. In this manner, capital and yield are straightforwardly related.


Time series data for the period 1972 to 2012 is collected. The data source for Gross domestic product, Exports, and Gross capital Formation is the World Development Indicator. Employed Labor Force, consumer price index and in terms of trade's data is obtained from the Handbook of statistics on Pakistan Economy 2010, Pakistan Economic survey of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and monthly bulletin of Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (Bashir, 2011).

Table 1 Average Growth of Real GDP and Exports in HPEA's

1980-1990 1991-1995

Hong Kong 6.9* 5.6*

Indonesia 6.1 7.6

Korea 9.4 7.2

Malaysia 5.2 8.7

Singapore 6.4 8.7

Thailand 7.6 8.4

Average 6.9 7.7

China 10.2 12.8

Developing countries 2.3 2.1

Industrial countries 3.2 2.0


Table 1: Estimation Results Dependent Variable = log(wage)

Intercept -0.01088 (0.52)

80s 0.00814 (0.9943 on 98 degrees of freedom)

Experience2 0.00007 (0.9943 on 98 degrees of freedom)

Education 0.03683 (0.09993)

Number of Observations 10

R-Squared 0.001384

Standard errors are shown in parentheses.

The gross domestic product represents actual total national output taken in a million rupees utilized as the intermediary of commercial development, L implies utilized work power of Pakistan taken in a million, utilized as the intermediary of work. K demonstrates the gross capital development at a steady market cost determined in a million rupees. It is taken as the intermediary of capital. X demonstrates the good fares taken in a million rupees. C represents a shopper value record and T for terms of exchange. Broadened Solow development is displayed in the Cob-Douglas generation work structure as under;

GDP = aKb Lc X d Ce T f eui

It is likewise expected that trades are straightforwardly related to the Gross Domestic Product. Fares to triumph over the conservativeness of the local market. Fares of fabricated products support the effectiveness all through the economy. Fares bring foreign income, which thus improves the dimension of household speculation yield and work (Bashir, 2011).


This research is aimed at examining the export-led development theory in Pakistan. By Johansen Cointegration, Vector Error Correction Model and Granger causality, Extended Solow development display is exactly dissected on account of Pakistan. Time arrangement information is gathered from 1972-2012 from Pakistan. The consequences of the investigation demonstrated the fare drove development theory on account of Pakistan. It is discovered that gross capital development, the utilized work drive, customer value record and regarding exchange are emphatically impacting financial development over the long haul. Short run outcomes are additionally apparent in the nearness of fares drove development speculation in Pakistan (Bashir, 2011). Johansen co-mix results demonstrate a solid long run connection among fares and financial development.


F Bashir, F. (2011, September 1). (PDF) Exports-Led Growth Hypothesis: The Econometric Evidence From Pakistan. Retrieved from

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