The climate model in Europe is very predictable with very high temperatures projected in Southern Europe in summer and Northern in winter. However, the climate varies regionally seasonally. Russian climate is characterized by its freezing winter, vast land mass and lacks protection from arctic winds sweeping its often frozen coastline. It experiences high temperatures, especially during summer. The changes in climate have both observed and projected impacts on Europes well-being and progress. Air temperatures, precipitation, snow depth, sea and rivers ice cover is expected to be on the rise endangering both humanity and environment at large. The climate extremes will be overruled heat waves, droughts and precipitation levels particularly, although this will vary regionally and seasonally. Russia is equally affected and issues such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries, production systems, physical infrastructure, health and social welfare and the general environment.
Agriculture plays a significant role in every country. Diverse climate changes are expected to affect its progress both in European and Asian Russia. Food productivity reduces with the increasing heat waves and drought is supposed to be on the rise. Despite the presence of better soils and improved farming facilities, aridity is foreseen. Livestock production is adversely affected by heat that reduces dairy production and growth development. High temperatures and humidity will affect breeding resulting in animal mortality, and the necessary adaptations require a large investment. New diets and health care techniques will be demanded consequently raising the farming costs. Forest existence is vulnerable to wildfires, pests/diseases, storms and reduced growth rates affect it. The forestry components mortality-wildlife, trees- will increase resulting in reduced tourism. Fisheries and aquaculture will be vulnerable to the climate threats, overfishing, loss of habitats and pollution, due to increasing water temperatures and flow regimes. The resulting impact will lead to the redistribution of fisheries especially to the high altitude, Asian Russia. There will be increase risks for aquatic life with increased pathogens and climatic changes.
The changes also will strike production systems and the physical infrastructure. Settlement and port construction along the coastline is discouraged due to increased snow depth. High maintenance costs are estimated for the existing infrastructure due to floods. The economy associated with the coastline will drop as investors are not willing t take risks in the region. Improvements and adjustments on built environment will be needed to cater the changing weather conditions. Road transport is expected to be safer due to changes made on vehicles and emergency systems sorting out the weather-related issues. Delays in railways, waterways and airways are expected with the increasing temperatures, water levels and wind changes resulting in increased transport costs. Energy production will be easy for wind power, hydropower with appropriate adaptations and solar power plants for solar energy. The transmission will require adjustments to cater for the heating and cooling with changing temperatures. Its usage will increase as the citizens try to cool or warm during the seasons. The energy generation cost will decrease with time. Tourism activities will increase due to the cool beaches before the temperature rise and mountain attractions due to its high altitude.
Health and social welfare will be expected to change with climate. Heat waves exposure will put human life in danger mainly the old and chronically ill, resulting in increased mortality. A platform for disease vector transmission will be created for instance malaria. Additionally food preservation methods mainly cereals during cold seasons will facilitate toxin accumulation that upon consumption result in illnesses. Supposed extreme climate changes will lead to the destruction of basic infrastructure including hospitals resulting in poor service delivery. Low livelihoods are anticipated as sectors such as tourism and agriculture will be affected by extreme changes hence unemployment, displacement and food insecurity. Cultural heritages and landscapes will be manipulated, and others destroyed by floods and slides, losing their value and existence.
The general environment quality has been compromised, and projected impact of climate changes can explain this. The changes will have complicated effects on humanity strive to better the situation, there will be massive involvement in chemistry, transport, emissions and deposition that will pollute the air. Current soil erosion, landslides and salinity will compromise future soil quality and water retention. Water quality will deteriorate as chemicals will contaminate it, and low rainfall levels increase pollution concentration. Rising temperatures will reduce water levels in rivers and receiving bodies. The freshwater ecosystems will be polluted, and marine ecosystems biodiversity altered with changing climate. All of the above environmental entities will have negative impacts on human, animal and aquatic life, agriculture and forestry as the struggle to rectify the situation will be underway.
Over the last decades, Russia has made progress in environmental regulation within the commonly accepted international standards and to some extent that exceed the standards. The implementation process has slowed down its growth and needs for proper management has erupted. Policies can be formed to help deal with the challenges arising from climate change and those projected to happen. Strict supervision needs to be taken to ensure efficient administration of the principles. When setting up policies, two areas need to be considered. Global; international legal, economic and political actions, natural resources available in different countries should be taken into consideration such that any associated limitation is not breached. State; socio-economic actions and the general environment in the country should be taken into account. This should be done in levels in municipals and local governments. Environmental regulation in Russia is on the lookout and any activity that environmental impact is subject to the stated policies.
Environmental permits/licenses should be instituted for anyone willing to conduct activities with effects on the surrounding. The permit should be compulsory and comprise allowance for general use of natural resources and negative impact n the environment. They determine the limits of waste emissions and pollution in all areas. It ensures environmental quality standards are achieved protecting humanity and ecosystems. Environmental assessments should be carried out to follow up permit compliances and attach the performance ratings.
The Economic mechanism should be involved in the regulation. It includes environmental charges and taxes covering the pollutants, and fines should be paid for offences and environmental damages. Adoption of management systems, guidelines and training of personnel at all levels; staff and students should be encouraged to the public to aid the government in the conservation. Imposition of liability in case of violations should be implemented to address all environmental management, preventing the spread of crime and destruction. Damage compensations should be done in case any company/party cause damages to public or the natural resources.
The Russian environment is a delicate matter in hand, and necessary precautions should be taken into consideration. State government should adequately reinforce the appropriate policies and ensure their implementation. Human activities should be regulated, and public enlightenment should be done to arm them with knowledge as they live with the climate changes.
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