Paper on Exploring Domestic Violence: Cross-Cultural Insights and Impact on Pregnant Women and Black Men

Published: 2023-12-25
Paper on Exploring Domestic Violence: Cross-Cultural Insights and Impact on Pregnant Women and Black Men
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Culture Pregnancy Domestic violence
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1764 words
15 min read

Cross-Cultural Research

An act of violence or aggressiveness towards a partner in a relationship is known as domestic violence. Abusing and assaulting a spouse is a serious crime and is punishable before the court (Manful et al. 2016). Information presented on domestic violence requires to be reviewed to bring changes. In general, the systematic review was to look at the extent to which Africans have suffered from domestic violence and seek intervention to the problem.

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In his article, Hampton (2008) conducted research and asserted that 960,000 domestic-related cases are reported annually in the United States. More so, 85% of those who are most affected are women. It is noted that women are more likely to be assaulted by their male partners in a relationship compared to men who are less likely to be assaulted. Facts revealed by statistics show that many of those ladies who are victims of domestic violence are black women. Families with low social status, and a lack of legal knowledge, and resources are more prone to domestic violence.

Relationships that are facing challenges of domestic violence or abuse are of African origin. Conversely, according to surveys conducted, white Americans show a smaller number of victims of domestic violence. The primary concern is the rising number of domestic violence cases amongst black women, becoming a major problem. The study alludes that mistreated women have the same problem, irrespective of their financial situations and tribal background. Racism was identified as one of the contributing factors to violence. It was deemed that many employees in the legal sector were white, therefore making it hard to solve the problem.

Hampton et al. (2008) also conducted a quantitative study on domestic violence within the African community. He explored the structure and relationship of couple violence in the black community. In the article, Hampton and colleagues look at both genders, males and females, in the African American community and seek to determine the primary cause of domestic violence and its remedy (Hampton et al. 2008). Categorically, the article seeks to find answers to the cause of violence in a family. The study is not limited to examining society and spirituality as the root cause of the problem. Society and spirituality keep women from speaking about it, leading to continued suffering in silence.

An increased review of multiple pieces of literature asserts that African American women are at risk of domestic violence. The literature holds that criminal justice advocacy efforts and law enforcement may not yield any fruit regarding this social problem. The article also claims that black women are more likely to experience systematic oppression and racism, preventing them from airing out their needs and not accessing the required resources (Hampton et al. 2008). Secondly, the intervention method is used to prevent them from getting justice since it utilizes the culture blind technique in the development and administrative intervention. In this article, Hampton and colleagues seek to examine the use of restorative justice approaches, which will integrate and move beyond criminal justice intervention through the incorporation of the need and concern of African female victims, the larger community, and offenders to curb domestic violence (Hampton et al. (2008).


The review used different methods of broad studies and making final decisions by the facilitators. Searching and acquiring information were guided by different institutions in which every meaning of elements was provided. 12 information from scientific sites and 13 from grey literature were used.


Challenges that black American women are going through are numerous and hard. Domestic violence is a wide scope that enables us to seek intervention from a dynamic perspective, including structure, societal norms and values, behavior, African women's concerns, and the criminal justice system (Hampton et al. (2008). Looking at the problem from the African concern point of view will help solve domestic violence.

Community Insights on Domestic Violence among African Americans


Jenkins (2020) conducted a study on community insights on domestic violence among African Americans. As Jenkins (2020) put it, there has been a reduced number of homicides and intimate violence; however, that seems not to be the case because domestic violence cases have been rising every other time. Statistics conducted nationally show that 45% of women and 40% of men from the black community are reported to be victims of forced sex, and assault likened to 37% of women and 30%of men from the white society (Jenkins, 2020).

A review of the article by Jenkins (2020) focused mainly on the number of intimate partner violence solutions in the African American community. Debates in structural and societal effects show how organizations have a history of racial discrimination preventing the black community from getting chances by driving them into lack, frustration, and hate resulting in violence from the black community (Jenkins et al. 2020).

The involvement of the community in providing solutions to domestic violence is key and can be relied on. Community programs designed are good in preventing and reducing domestic violence because of community effects on norms, values, and rules (Jenkins, 2020). The study tries to find the omitted information from domestic violence among the black community. Nonetheless, the article concentrates on preventing and lowering the number of domestic cases among the black community. The mission is to understand domestic violence in the African American community and offer solutions to the problem.


The research was conducted through a focus group; this study is highly regarded for its strength. The black race participants in the United States were chosen because of their importance or role in domestic violence. They reacted to different questions posted to them in group consultations. This gave them a platform to share their thoughts and topics. The group size constituted 5 members to 15 in number (Jenkins, 2020). Data collected was done using a tape recorder, copied, and evaluated based on the questions' topics.


Three hundred thirty-five persons were involved in groups. The dominant groups who participated constituted 70% of women (Jenkins, 2020). The participants were literate in all the groups, and all of them were Africans at the age of 40 years and above. Further, 37 picked groups participated from 1998 to 2004. The participants came from different cities in which the study was conducted (Jenkins). Before information was collected, the persons involved in collecting data passed through a training procedure and exercise necessary for commencing the process (Jenkins). The committee managed the member groups throughout the entire process.


The information acquired was analyzed using different methods. First, the tape recorders in every group were copied, excluding the first group because data was collected by the organizers and required to be analyzed by a private individual through audio recorders and copying it (Jenkins). Information was analyzed from different groups, a report was drafted for every city, and a conclusion was drawn across the groups.

Discussions and Limitations

The sample studied gave an advantage to the study's success because it allowed an individual to share information on the theme and its limitations. However, the sample presented does not signify all the black women or the black activists. Some of the solutions to prevent domestic violence may sometimes not prove effective, exposing the victims to repeat domestic violence (Jenkins, 2020). Data presented may not report a larger population residing in rural areas.


By acknowledging the problems presented during the study, the study's data will help address domestic violence in African American society. The solution and treatment process should be prosperous and should change the behavior toward violence. When solving this problem of domestic violence, it is important to incorporate the entire society.

Domestic violence among pregnant women


Shamu et al. (2011) carried out a study regarding domestic violence among pregnant women. While most studies dwell more on increased domestic cases among black women, pregnant women are hardly covered (Shamu et al. 2011). Intimate partner violence is very high in the African community. Nonetheless, significant studies regarding domestic violence among pregnant women have not been thoroughly analyzed. Therefore, this paper intends to present a systematic review stating and summarizing the studies concerning intimate partner violence prevalence and pregnant women's risk factors.


The word search was conducted in different data cases, mostly journals on intimate partner violence among pregnant women. The quantitative articles on pregnant women in Africa published from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed. The Meta-analysis yielded a prevalence of IPV of 15.23 percent (Shamu et al. 2011). Other studies maintained that there is a significant association between HIV and intimate partner relationships during pregnancy. Some studies claimed that an association between intimate partner violence and alcohol abuse increases the chances of being abused.


The prevalence of IPV among pregnant mothers in Africa is widely reported. The major risk factors comprise HIV, alcohol and drugs, and a history of domestic violence. Therefore, this evidence triggers the study of other topics such as understanding domestic violence during pregnancy and looking into interventions in reproductive health services to reduce violence.

Black Men as Victims and Perpetrators of Domestic Violence

A reviewed article by Carolyn M. West focuses on; the prevention of violence, and providing disciplinary and intervention programs. Relationship violence has been witnessed across all classes from race to economic, and racial differences. It is evident that many black men are imprisoned, jobless, and poor (West, 2008). Following the economic strain, black men tend to resort to violence to settle their emotions. Statistics show that 45% of married black men are more likely to be violent, unlike 28% of white men (West, 2008). The purpose of the study is to review the problem and analyze African American men as the victims of domestic violence, as the abusers in relationships, and the actual cause of domestic violence. The paper seeks to analyze the challenges and provide solutions to future studies in preventing and offering interventions.


The review used different methodological scope studies in making final discussions by the organizers. Searching and exploring information were guided by different institutions in which every meaning of elements was provided. 12 information scientific sites and 13 from grey literature were used (West, 2008).

Limitations and Discussions

A recent study shows a growing rate and the effects of domestic violence among black communities. The study was based on rural and urban areas; however, the cross-sectional information cannot address the problem. Longitudinal studies that follow the history of dating life among men must use short-term and long-term experiences in a relationship.

Caution should be taken by researchers when giving and discussing data. Research should follow up to ascertain facts presented during the study and maintain the originality of research work regarding the effects of labeling black men to be violent (West, 2008). The outcome of a report presented will be used in proving that African American men are not deviant or violent, can be controlled, and that most of them are not imprisoned.

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