|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Population Mental health Healthcare policy Community health|
According to the World Health Organization WHO (2006), mental and physical disability is caused by natural (genetics, infections, prenatal damage), physiological (reduced ability to relate with others), and environmental factors (substance abuse). A survey held by the WHO showed the number of those with a mental disability is higher compared to those with physical disabilities (WHO, 2006). The organization also lists some of the limitations of disabilities where the physical disability disorders are limited to disability in social and personal role functioning, whereas the mental disorders are limited to disability in productive role functioning. Many scholars have come up with numerous ways to advocate for the treatment of physical and psychological disabilities. The advocates created awareness of the occurrence, severity, and chronicity of conditions and the cost-effectiveness of treatments (WHO, 2006).
Due to the global burden caused by both physical and mental disorders continues to rise. The physical and mental disability caused by communicable and non-communicable conditions (Khan et al., 2018). Access to healthcare services for those with mental and physical disorders has become a challenging factor in increasing the mortality rate. The inability to access healthcare is because the institutions allocated for care and treatment of those with the diseases are not well managed, and there is limited access to quality physical and mental health care. Through the non-discrimination and universal health coverage, the management and prevention of the physical and mental disorders require an individual to receive a good quality of health services such as screening (Khan et al., 2018).
Management of the mental and physical disorders requires an individual to reduce the health behaviors creating risk factors for these illnesses. There is also the use of interventions such as the Package of Essential Noncommunicable (PEN) Disease Interventions for Primary Health Care in Low-Resource Management. Schwartz, Capó-Lugo, & Heyn (2019), discussed some of the methods to manage the mental and physical disorders including consultation where an individual is made aware of the some of the risk factors associated with a mental and physical disability. Acceptance is another way of managing the physical and psychological disorders, where those affected should have a positive attitude toward their condition and others so that there can be a good relationship between them and the surrounding community.
Researches have shown that despite mental and physical disability as a result of injury, illness, or congenital disability, the Human Rights Act prohibits discrimination based on physical and psychological disability in some situations. The situation includes employment, selling or leasing of property, publishing, broadcasting, and advertising, among others (Findley, 2020). Every individual can exercise the full range of human rights and access to high quality, culturally-appropriate health and social care. Individuals with physical and mental disorders through the Human Rights Acts should be aware of some of the exceptions that may not allow them to exercise their rights. Findley (2020), discussed some of these exceptions, such as particular occupational qualification such as disqualification to work as construction laborer because an individual uses a wheelchair. Pensions and Insurance exceptions, where when granting health insurance, an individual with mental and physical and mental disability not taken into consideration.
Saxena (2017) addressed some of the challenges faced by individuals with physical and mental disabilities since those with physical and mental disabilities frequently face hardship and challenges, which has a significant impact on their well- being. Some of these barriers limit the persons functioning in his or her environment. These barriers caused by some aspects such as lack of ability to access the physical environment, lack of relevant assistive technology, negative attitudes of people towards those individuals with a disability, and non- existent of services, systems, and policies involve people with a health condition in all areas of life.
These conditions make those with mental and physical disabilities experience extreme difficulties in functioning in the daily activities in their lives actively. Some of the most common barriers faced by individuals with physical and mental disabilities include mobility barriers, attitudinal barriers, communication barriers, physical barriers policy barriers, among others (Doherty et al., 2019). Attitudinal is the most fundamental barrier that those suffering from mental and physical disability face. Attitudinal barriers include stereotyping, stigma, prejudice, and discrimination. Societies are improving in accepting those with disabilities, leading to a decrease in the attitudinal barriers. Many people recently recognize those with physical and mental disability as what occurs when the physical needs of an individual not fulfilled. Requirements of the disabilities not addressed in their physical or social environment (Doherty et al., 2019).
Some of the ways to overcome these barriers, according to Sundar et al. (2018), include; those with mobility barriers studies have shown that those with a physical and mental disability do not receive the routine medical preventive medical care and to overcome this barrier. The government should build many health institutional facilities so that the individual not forced to travel long distances to receive the needed medical care. The guardians or relatives of those with disabilities should also help by encouraging them to obtain them to go to the hospital (Sundar et al., 2018). Attitudinal barriers to those living with physical disabilities should organize peer support groups for those with disabilities. They should make positive comments about those with physical and mental disabilities to make them feel safe and loved. Communication barriers that are often faced by those with disabilities that affect hearing, speaking, reading, writing, and or understanding overcome by the use of big prints for with vision impairs, use of videos with captions for those with hearing impairments and use of technical language for those with cognitive impliedness.
Doherty, A. J., Atherton, H., Boland, P., Hastings, R. P., Hives, L., Hood, K. ... & Taggart, L. (2019). Barriers and facilitators to primary health care for physical and or mental health issues experienced by adolescents and adults with intellectual disabilities (only), autism (only), or both: an integrative review. Retrieved from
Findley, P. (2020). Disability Rights. In Encyclopedia of Social Work. Retrieved from https://oxfordre.com/socialwork/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.001.0001/acrefore-9780199975839-e-895
Khan, F., Amatya, B., Avirmed, B., Kyoung Yi, Y., Shirmen, B., Tsegmid, Galea, M. P. (2018). World health organization global disability action plan: the Mongolian perspective. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 50(4), 358-366. Retrieved from
Saxena, S. (2017). Addressing Stigma: The WHO Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan, 2013–2020. The Stigma of Mental Illness-End of the Story? (pp. 635-640). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-27839-1_37
Schwartz, J. K., Capó-Lugo, C. E., & Heyn, P. C. (2019). Health Self-Management. In Physical Health of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (pp. 345-358). Springer, Cham. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-90083-4_17
Sundar, V., O’Neill, J., Houtenville, A. J., Phillips, K. G., Keirns, T., Smith, A., & Katz, E. E. (2018). Striving to work and overcoming barriers: Employment strategies and successes of people with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 48(1), 93-109. Retrieved from https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-vocational-rehabilitation/jvr918
World Health Organization. (2016). World Health Statistics 2016: Monitoring Health for SDGs sustainable development goals. World Health Organization.
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