Intellectual Migration Among Kazakhstan Millennials. Paper Example

Published: 2023-01-09
Intellectual Migration Among Kazakhstan Millennials. Paper Example
Type of paper:  Literature review
Categories:  Immigration Intelligence Asia Social issue
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1810 words
16 min read

Intellectual migration has become a serious issue that needs to be addressed with immediate effect. Some of the categories influenced by this action include; teachers, doctors and nurses, professors, and another set of experienced workers. Intellectual movement can also be referred to brain drain; it is the process by which states ends up losing their skilled and trained personnel equipped with skills and experience in different fields to other countries. It is a definite drawback in a nation since the experienced people who could otherwise help in driving development projects in their home countries.

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Other sources also define the practice as the process by which providers of both academic and technological form of the labor force are lost by one country to another where, it is assumed to have a more favorable geographical environment that satisfies their needs, requirements, and specifications. Developing countries becomes the most affected as revealed in the research that majority in the developing countries frequently migrate to the developed countries for a greener pasture that meets satisfies their economic and professional needs (Docquier, Lohest & Marfouk, 2007).

Kazakhstan is not an exemption, and it has gone through a severe economic hardship resulting from the effects caused by the impact of immigration. (Docquier & Rapoport, 2012), directly relate this concern to the globalization and development rates of various states and countries worldwide. Globalization has played a significant role, and currently, there is a good intercommunication strategy between countries, thus migrating from one county to another is no longer an issue. The studies show that "the magnitude and intensity of brain drain activity are becoming a dominant pattern of international migration and a significant aspect of globalization (Docquier & Rapoport, 2012). Some little part of Kazakhstan is located in Europe during its more significant proportion in central Asia.

Aims and Objectives

Due to the noted increase in the act of intellectual migration of Kazakhstan millennials to other countries around the world for the search of better opportunities and chances for satisfaction, it has become so demanding by the public to know several concepts and facts about the practice. By the end of this reading, a reader should be able to understand some basics fully. To meet the set or the ambitious interdisciplinary aims, this project has the following objectives on this specific research:

  1. To thoroughly analyze the citizens of Kazakhstan and collect their views on the possible reasons for the migration of the country.
  2. To understand various trends on employment and education sectors using the available statistics, compress the sources, and come up with precise figures for interpretation.
  3. To collect the data from both the airports and lake ports and determine the numbers of people that migrate either in or out of the country for a specific period and thereof do analysis for proper interpretations in terms of percentages.
  4. To fully categorize the immigrants or the emigrants into different categories, male/female, age difference, employment status, and other factors if there is.
  5. To investigate on various government bureaucracies, including health departments, learning institutions and other serious running organization in Kazakhstan, and come out clearly with the figures for the employed staff and compare this to the collected data of the unemployed individuals in Kazakhstan who are qualified and meets all the job requirements.
  6. Make relevant conclusions from the obtained data, after a thorough evaluation with a set of experienced persons, on the issue of the intellectual immigration of the Kazakhstan millennials.

Research Questions

The research was based on several hypotheses, or rather gauzes that revolved around the concept of intellectual migration. The following questions highlighted enhanced accuracy of efficiency of the evaluation of the stated objectives that were to be followed during the research.

  1. What is intellectual migration? To the citizens, the politicians, and other highly-ranked individuals.
  2. What caused intellectual migration? If many, which cause dominated in a more substantial part of Kazakhstan.
  3. How did the intellectual migration of Kazakhstan millennials affect the country's economy? State clearly both the positive and negative effects on the country depending on the people's view.
  4. What number of people migrated at a certain period, using the data collected from the port authorities?

Literature Review

Economic, Political and Labor Conditions in Kazakhstan

The economic status of Kazakhstan has been depreciating gradually. This has been observed in a number of sectors in the country in different departments (Marat, E. (2009). However, it is the country with the largest economy in central Asia, and greatly supported by the presence of huge deposits of oils, gases, and other minerals. They generate income for the country and as a result, increases GDP that is to used in developing other sectors of the economy. The landscape of the country is also gentle to support agriculture, both crops and livestock keeping. the only major problem with the country is that it is dependent on one sector, which is oil. Any changes or inconveniences in either the processing processes or on the prices of oil, can therefore influence the economy rapidly as it happened in 2016, when the global slump of oil prices occurred.

The country is presently having 17.7million, with an approximated number of 8.965millions in the working class, as per the data obtained in the years 2015. During the same year GDP of the country stood at $271, while the purchasing power was about $429. Considering the analysis of the total population in relation to the unemployment state, the rate of those unemployed was 5%. (Dewoody, 2005).

The political conditions of the country also remain questionable, for the constant growth of the economy of Kazakhstan. This is one type of county where, since it gained independence, it has been purely led by one leader, president Nursultan Nazarbayev. Studies have shown that the leader has created a system of government which is unstable due to the acts of dictatorship and hunger of power. Speculations are in the air as to whether he may step down because, his arrogancy and poor leadership in the country, has led to instances of corruption, that has in turn facilitated the intellectual migration into other countries (Schatz, 2000). The politics of multiple identities: lineage and ethnicity in Kazakhstan. Europe-Asia Studies, 52(3), 489-506. The poor leadership in the country has also kept away investors from venturing into the country for investments and businesses.

Labor department in Kazakhstan is not an exception, when recognizing the various causes that increase the brain drain or the intellectual migration. In the country, there a several labor laws, and each one of them must be found to be affecting a certain group of people in one way or the other. The following are some of the examples of the acts that are used in the country to assign employment opportunities to the citizens and the foreigners.

The Kazakhstan constitution sets out the basic principles of labor deployment to individuals.

The use of the labor code in the country regulates the employment and other related issues, partnerships and finally safety and protection of labor

On a resolution document printed and documented by the supreme court of Kazakhstan, concerning specific issues of application by the legislators on labor disputes in courts dated 6th October, 2017.

The argument is not that, with the existence of many laws governing the labor, there is an assurance of unemployment, no, it is that these rules aim to target a given personnel in the country. for instance, the is another act named laws and normative acts, this are set to regulate particular issues involved in labor, for example, the law on migration under these acts addresses, the aspect of offering jobs to the foreign people entering into the country, and in most cases, as highlighted initially that country experiences dictatorship type of ruling, and therefore, majority who could have wanted to acquire dual citizenship of the country and work within, may not find it so quite favorable to reside due to the hostile environment created by the strict rules against them (Elebaeva, A. (2004). Labor migration in Kyrgyzstan. Central Asia and the Caucasus, (3 (27)). Intellectual Migration Involving Most Millennials

Kazakhstan as a country has evidenced the constant movement of millennials in and outside the country. millennials are just the youngsters or rather the teens who are approaching the age of twenty-one years. These are group of individuals who are usually valued a lot especially, when a country wants to improve on its economy or gain political knowledge and wisdom. This is because, at this age, these people also referred to as "youths" are very productive in terms of knowledge and concrete pieces of advice. A country like Kazakhstan may use this young people in the mining sites to manage and run these primary activities that the economy of the country is directly dependent on, of course with the help of some experienced to supervise and ensure that all is at par.

The migration may be productive or of effect to the country depending on whether it is immigration or emigration, and the type of activity that the person wants to venture in. however, as was found earlier in the research that the employment of people in Kazakhstan has been constant for the past five years at the rate of 5%.

Causes of Intellectual Immigration

There may be several causes for the intellectual migration in Kazakhstan, but the parent causes are the search for employment opportunities or somewhat better jobs that pay a higher amount than what they are earning in the country, looking for a more luxurious life and political instability in some occasions. However, Kazakhstan majorly affected by two primary causes that are driving the effect of brain drain. One is the amount of expense that governments take from the GDP to enhance the education sector, and secondly, and the chances of obtaining jobs after completion of studies.

Comparison of Levels of Emigration

Nakamuro and Ogawa, (2010), performed three crucial pieces of research on the rate of brain drain in various continents and countries, comparison of the probability of obtaining jobs in different countries, and finally the government expenditure towards support for the tertiary education.

These results are useful since they may be used to help in understanding the logic behind the continued emigration of millennials from Kazakhstani. Also, it can help in knowing the specific category of people or merely the group that has performed the activity at a higher rate. This information can be useful for later interpretation in the decision-making for the better moves to take against the issue to ensure leveled development across the world, with a country coming up with its innovation and invention ideas from the homegrown educated individuals.

In the years 1994 and 2004, respectively, Europe and Central Asian countries led with the number of physicians emigrating, the figures collected per every 1000 individuals indicated that the rate was about 2.8 and 3.0 in 1994 and 2004 respectively, this was the highest value, and in fact, only North American countries led with about 2.7 and 2.5 rates respectively for the years 1994 and 2004 (Nakamuro & Ogawa, 2010).

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