|Essay type:||Problem solution essays|
|Categories:||Globalization Terrorism Homeland security|
Terrorism attack was given relevance after the 9/11 attack. It resulted in numerous academic works being proposed and adopted to enhance the quality of information to fight terrorism in America and the entire world. As such, most of the rational works concentrated on information sharing to the relevant authorities and should be done on time to tackle the terror attack. They also focused on the way information sharing should be undertaken for the entire process to be effective. Information sharing is quite integral for the Department of Homeland Services to fulfill its mission concerning the terrorist attacks of 9/11. Having information on threats and even the actual incidences experienced by others can assist an organization in detecting trends, comprehending in a better way the risks they face, and further determining the preventive measures that should be applied. The electronic information sharing model and the adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system are some of the models recommended after the 9/11 attack to support information sharing.
One of the major causes of the 9/11 attack was the failure of information sharing. Research has shown that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other law enforcement agencies had pieces of information before the 9/11 attack. As such, sharing this knowledge before that day by the intelligence and law enforcement agencies would have led to the unveiling of the entire plot to conduct the attack (Paretta, 2012). By the day of the attack, al Qaeda had possessed certain elements that enabled them to undertake the attack quickly. They had effective communications that boosted the planning and direction of operatives as well as those who would be assisting them in the operation. They also had an intelligence effort to collect the needed information and develop assessments of the strengths and faults of their enemy (Paretta, 2012). Nevertheless, all these aspects were not present in the US government, and it further boosted their plan to conduct the terror attack.
Information sharing denotes sharing the available information resources among team members mutually. In this way, there will be efficient decision making. One of the models proposed for the facilitation of information sharing is the electronic information sharing model. Terrorist attacks and even natural disasters have depicted that the effects of threats on homeland security should be comprehensively assessed (Abaas et al., 2014). The model has been considered by the most effective tools that offer appropriate alliance and synchronization between intelligence groups and counterterrorism. Also, the effective adoption of decision-making plans relies on the extent to which the government and private sector partners engage in methodical, proficient, and multidirectional information sharing and scrutiny (Abaas et al., 2014). It is fundamental for the intelligence communities to cooperate with government agencies' assistance with the right accountability and power levels. In this model, the actor participating in a coordination agency in anti-terror could constitute of different parties. They could be electronic infrastructure operators and owners, the military and civil intelligence groups, government agencies, and local and regional authorities, among others (Abaas et al., 2014). The electronic information sharing model's adoption will enable information to be shared easily among all the relevant parties in the event of an attack and thus facilitate practical solutions to be applied.
Another relevant model of information sharing is the adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system. It is a hybrid model constructed on a software tool that enables intelligence specialists to detect terror intimidations, forecast any possible rise of terror actions, and further recommend tactics for counteracting terrorism. The model further offers a dispersed processing configuration for collecting, distributing, comprehending, and utilizing information to evaluate and further forecast the terrorist network states. The system was designed in reaction to the events of the 9/11 attack. It was developed as a terrorism information responsiveness system to recognize and further prohibit terrorist activities (Brebbia et al., 2018). As such, the system is quite useful since it promotes information sharing and also gives tactics to be employed to deal with the attack.
Currently, the world has various forms of technologies that can support the proposed information sharing models. Specific technologies can support the electronic information sharing model. They include networks, internet, intranets or extranets, and shared database. All these will enable the parties responsible for handling terror threats or attacks to receive the required details of a planned attack before it occurs and employ effective measures to avert it as well. Besides, it is vital to note that most of these forms of technologies can efficiently be utilized require minimal or no type of training. It will only be necessary for the parties to ensure that they have access to these technologies and carefully scrutinize the information shared through these channels.
On the other hand, the adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system can be supported by the hidden Markov models (HMM). It is a statistical model that can be employed to describe the advancement of notable events that rely on internal dynamics that cannot be observed directly. It can be utilized in the adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system to model the time evolution of doubtful designs within the information space gathered from bases such as intelligence reports, emails, financial organizations, and newspapers, among others (Li & Gray, 2012). Thus, the HMM assists the system to pass the relevant information to the right parties for the right action to be taken.
The most useful information sharing model to assist in preventing terrorist attacks is the electronic information sharing model. It brings together the intelligence and counterterrorism communities, and this ensures that they work together towards the attainment of a common goal. Also, they will be encouraged to forward any relevant information about a planned terrorist attack and further share details on how it can be averted by working together. Through this model, the intelligence and counterterrorism agents can decide on the best way to deal with the threat. They can also go to an extra extent and gather more information about the terrorists and their actual plan concerning the attack (Abaas et al., 2014). Also, through the electronic sharing model which has been observed to be supported by technologies such as the internet, email and shared database among others, details can be shared to members of the public to be vigilant of their surroundings and even report any suspicious activity that may seem like a threat to the security of the country. The public can be given this information through the internet and on social media platforms, which have become rampant in the current world (Abaas et al., 2014). Furthermore, it is essential to note that the use of the electronic information sharing model can be useful as the intelligence agencies can acquire more details about an attack through other platforms that may be voluntarily and anonymously given by people. It will be vital for them to evaluate the information received and determine whether it is authentic and whether it can be applied in the planned operations to avert the threat or attack.
The information sharing models have been assessed, especially those that have been proposed since the 9/11 attack. They include electronic information sharing model and adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system. They have been observed to support information dissemination about a terror attack and the measures that can be taken to avert them as well. The electronic information sharing model has further been purported to be most useful to assist in preventing terrorist attacks. It is easy to use and can further be used to warn the public. Also, it has been noted that failure to share relevant information among law enforcement agencies hugely contributed to the 9/11 attack. Therefore, information sharing is an element pertinent to prevent or tackle terror attacks effectively.
Abaas, T., Shibghatullah, A. S., Yusof, R., & Alaameri, A. (2014). Importance and Significance of Information Sharing in Terrorism Field. Science International, 26(5).Brebbia, C. A., Guarascio, M., Garzia, F., & Lombardi, M. (2018). Safety and security engineering VII. Southampton : WIT Press.
Li, J., & Gray, R. M. (2012). Image Segmentation and Compression Using Hidden Markov Models. Boston, MA : Springer US.
Paretta, L. (2012). Failures in leadership: assessing organizational, strategic, and tactical intelligence failures prior to 11 September 2001. Criminal Justice Studies, 25(3), 301-317.
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