|Type of paper:
|Terrorism Homeland security
More than any other happening in current memory: September 11, 2001, underlined America's susceptibility to the new form of safety threats. At risk is not only the security of American going on with their everyday activities but also the corporeal and cyberinfrastructure in which is the backbone of U.S economic success and well-being. According to Perrow (2016), in specific, the occurrence of 9-11, has made all the ranks and the divisions of government to concentrate on how best to evaluate national readiness. The move is to ensure that proper resources decisions can be arrived at to improve the ability of a nation to curb, shield against, react to, and recuperate from main catastrophic happenings. Norris et al., (2008) assert that such as community consistency can lead to and the ability to marshal resources quickly. Nevertheless, as the development of community policy associated with homeland security advance, federalism suggests different things to different actions, outlets, and ranks of government. This has led to all responsibility of enhancing security to be placed at the shoulder of private sectors, with lack of support or measures from a local law that will reinforce executing homeland security goal.
Local law enforcement agencies are vital in preparation for, reacting to, and averting terrorism. The Department of Homeland Security (2002) and the Office of Domestic Preparedness (2003), documented several guides to assist state, federal and local agencies stop terrorism. Also, Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 remains the main reactor responsible for the most substantial portion of the state and local law enforcement agencies (Bush, 2003). Moreover, the intensive determination by the U.S Government to resolve systematically critical infrastructure matters is reasonably recent. For instance, President Reagan considered elements of national security problems caused by advancement in telecommunications technology. To address the challenge, an advisory committee of U.S firms was established. However, ad hoc relations between the government and affected companies were the standard. Instead, during the reigning of President Clinton, the first effort was established to address homeland security matters.
During Clinton administration, that is first the idea of homeland security took a turn on emphasize on public-private collaboration as a way of resolving such apprehensions. The collaboration effort pursues until the introduction of the Cold war. Aaron in the book: Shadow of the Garrison State- Anti-Statism and Its Cold War Grand Strategy gave detailed information on the logic behind the privatization of production of arms in the U.S succeeding the World War II, that result placing fundamental dependence on the private industry to generate arms of nations (Rosenberg, 2018). Replicating an anti-statist norm in America political world, the US formulated a means to purchase weapons from the private firms, rather than to adopt a more burdensome policy. Wibben, (2018) emphasizes that this symbolizes the achievement of the national security state in joining the non- government sector and privately owned resources for purposes of the nation, widely, through the government's near- a monopoly over armed procurement.
Furthermore, due to increased instances of cyber-attacks on facilities both own by the government and non- governmental sector, the efforts were concentrated on cyber-security at the expense of other threats. The run-up to Y2K and disowning of service attack that took place in 2000 outlined this susceptibility and elevated awareness. The Clinton Administration enthusiastically stimulated the development of sector-specific ISACs. This translated to the begin of sharing information among companies and between the government and the private sector (Ghose, A. (2007). However, the effort placed on ISAC by the governments diminished resulting in governments hiring armed force and purchased weapons produced by private firms, as a way of enhancing national security.
Nevertheless, in the post-attack that took place in 2001, it has shown that security threats cannot be controlled by purchasing of the power of the government. Instead, it risks calls for a collaborative approach. According to Williams (2015), the matter at hand "is no longer determined by whether or not the private industry can depend on to produce high-quality weapons at a standard prize, or whether or not the private sector will capitalize the basic resources to protect itself against inadequate direct intervention from the government." Therefore, the advanced threats call for teamwork to strengthen national security to address the challenge.
One of the most unsafe faults in the Government's homeland security actions to date has been the overall lack of processes to support private market inducement. On the other hand, in this new security environment, the border amid the non-governmental and governmental sector has unclear. While security conventionally demarcated has been the field of the federal government, homeland security is not exclusively the duty of the private sector, but also of state and local government. Homeland security is shared accountability that cannot be realized by private entity alone. Thus to win this battle, it desires international alliances, brainpower sharing, and law enforcement collaboration, which will establish a new dissection of roles between the key stakeholders.
Bush, G. W. (2003). Homeland security presidential directive 5. National Security Presidential Directives.
Ghose, A. (2007). Information Disclosure and Regulatory Compliance: Economic Issues. In Managing information assurance in financial services (pp. 304-317). IGI Global.
Wibben, A. T. (2018). Why we need to study (US) militarism: A critical feminist lens. Security Dialogue, 0967010617742006.
Norris, F. H., Stevens, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. F., & Pfefferbaum, R. L. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American journal of community psychology, 41(1-2), 127-150.
Williams, J. R. A. (2015). The Legal Limits of Targeting the Cyber Capabilities of a Neutral State. Air Command and Staff College, Air University Maxwell Air Force Base the United States.
Perrow, C. (2016)."The Disaster after 9/11: The Department of Homeland Security and the Intelligence Reorganization." Homeland Security Affairs 2
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