Q 1 (8p)
The Korean immigrants remain the most entrepreneurial ethnicity due to their creativity and innovation as a result of social discrimination by the Korean natives. Globalization played a critical role in promoting entrepreneurship. Ethnicity became salient in the global workplaces enhancing capitalism. Globalization united the natives and Korean immigrants making them the most entrepreneurial ethnicity. The entrepreneurial growth was driven by the availability of resources and mobilization, market availability and various business opportunity structures. Lack of education and language barrier prevented them from accessing education and instead preferred to take a risk by starting up small businesses (Kim 165).
The Korean immigrants could not get white-collar jobs and instead preferred self-employment to increase economic mobility in the U.S. The Korean middle-class persons, family structures, and ties helped them to realize the opportunities in business ownership (Kim et al 624). Besides, financial assistance was provided by social networks such as kinships, church membership, family, and friendship. There was high demand for Korean cultural products which created an economic niche for the business persons. The economic niche in the United States provided opportunities for various products. Consequently, racial and social discrimination subjected towards African Americans and Koreans had a great impact and led to self-employment (Kim 235).
Q 2 (10P)
Educational performance and Career choice among college students have been emphasized in various ways by the Korean American and communities. Strict parenting and provision of necessary resources are among the concrete practices behind the excellent performance. There is a correlation between strict upbringing and educational success. The study done by Kim (225) to examine the educational achievement and attainment among second-generation Korean-American college students indicated that most second-generation Korean American attains a high level of education similar to the educational attainment of immigrant parents(Yoo and Kim 165). The Korean Americans attend elite high schools and colleges portraying an impression of minorities. School-related factors such as teacher's performance and expectation, peers, and degrees of socialization have a significant impact on educational performance and career choice (Kim 226). The parental pressure in elite high schools and colleges boost educational performance in second-generation Korean success. In addition, students motivation level is pushed to higher levels with high recordings of performance.
Similarly, students spent much of their time studying under close supervision by the teachers. The educators have high expectation leading to educational achievement (Yoo and Kim 186). Cultural and structural explanations have a significant impact on the attainment. The Asian culture plays a critical role due to Confucianism. Other factors include emphasizes on hard work, respect, dignity and core values. The Asian culture provides a conducive environment for educational achievement because of the values, beliefs, and attitudes (Kim 239). The practices have made it possible and the Korean Americans families emphasize on the career choices. The career choice is driven by efforts made by parents through the practice of good parenting skills. Stratification theorists assert that the socioeconomic status of parents determines the success of their children in relation to education (Yoo and Kim 180).
There is a strong correlation between the parent's socioeconomic and educational achievement. The socioeconomic status includes occupation, education level, and income. Children from poor families are likely to perform poorer compared to those from wealthy backgrounds. However, some studies have indicated that Asian Americans from low socioeconomic status perform better despite the economic challenges (Kim 246). Researchers have established other factors and practices behind academic achievement including blocked mobility, peer pressure, social capital and student's expectation. Other factors may include gender, race, ethnicity and political instability (Chung 911).
Peer groups and academic engagement is associated with educational performance and career choice among students. Student engagement in schoolwork plays a significant role in academic excellence. Peer groups act as the primary agents for socialization among the students and influences student engagement and participation in school work. Asian Americans are more engaged in school work due to social exclusion (Kim 456). The number of graduates in Korean Americans is higher compared to natives due to their commitment and self-realization.
Lastly, Asian American parents have invested more in education leading to good performance and educational achievement. The students and parents put more efforts and investment in education to secure upward mobility. Self-selection and voluntarily migration have a significant impact on education. Discrimination and prejudice make parents to prefer education to attain upward mobility in the society. Cultural orientation towards education has positively influenced the education sector with more Asian Americans opting to attain acad3emic success (Kim 258).
The wide range in educational experience among the Korean American youths depends on several factors including the desire and commitment towards accomplishing the academic journey. The wide range of educational experience is influenced by socioeconomic backgrounds and parental strategies in achieving academic success (Lew 369). The Korean youths sampled during the study to compare different experiences in high and low-achieving students in New York showed a positive correlation between socioeconomic background and academic achievement. Despite the homogeneous entrepreneurial success among Korean Americans, socioeconomic variability affects educational success creating a wide range of educational experience (Lew 370).
The wide variation is caused by differences in social class backgrounds limiting accessibility to social capital. The students have unequal opportunities based on the socioeconomic background operating under different parental strategies. The youths are likely to gain experience depending on the sets of resources available based on first-generation parents, co-ethnic and type of school (Lew 376). Factors such as social class, school environment, and social capital determine the academic achievement among the Korean youths leading to vast experience. Cultural discourse plays a significant role in relation to Asian values like work, education, and family. Social and economic class affects parental strategies limiting access to education resources (Lew 381). The experience is also determined by economic class depending on whether the parents are middle or working class.
The educational experience of Korean youths in America is contributed by parental involvement. Both working and middle-class parents have different resources including cultural capital and time to help their students while schooling. Family income and parental education have a great impact on the youths. Students from poor families have limited access to educational resources which affects their performance. Moreover, the schools are less likely to get involved in the cultural capital which affects students. Social networks create a conducive environment for education (Lew 384).
Strengths and weakness of the articles;
The article was well written and analyzed various ministries to ascertain the findings of the second generation Korean Churches. Sharon Kim adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods to establish her findings. The sample sizes were reasonable and data collection was done through the interview, survey, review of relevant literature and observation. The tension among the newly formed second-generation churches and ethnic boundaries in Los Angeles were examined (Kim 98). The literature review included all the variables of the study. Besides, the research gap was well filled and the correlation between independent and dependent variable was established.
The author did not state how sampling was done and the hypothesis test is not significant. There is too much over a generation in the article and the sample size used is too small. The response rate was too small affecting the validity and reliability of the study. Literature reviews obtained are outdated and cannot be ascertained. There was no pilot study to test the data collection tools and results were not well presented. The author should test both null and alternative hypothesis to determine the findings.
Min Pyong Gap and Dae Young Kim:
The article systematically examined how the Korean Protestant immigrants in the U.S transmitted religion and cultural tradition through religion. The study was done through a survey involving 1.5 and second generation Korean Americans. The study results are significant and well presented. Besides, primary data were collected through a telephone survey. The literature review was correctly done and the author considered the research gap.
Validity and reliability of the study cannot be ascertained. Data collection was done through telephone interviews and the study results may not be justified. The assertion that it is difficult to transmit Korean cultural traditions via religion is not justified by the findings (Min and Kim 263). There is no correlation between transmission of religion and ethnic culture based on identity. The author should have considered recent literature reviews during the study. More research should be done to establish the correlation between the variables.
The Korean immigrant merchants residing in the South Central experienced unrest in distinct ways including racial discrimination and prejudice. Media portrayed the crisis as an "ethnic" conflict between African Americans and Koreans living in the U.S. There was economic oppression making life so difficult. It was impossible to get basic needs at affordable prices due to social discrimination. Exclusion and Korean exploitation at workplaces made life unbearable for both the Koreans and African Americans. The unrest included working for long hours without rest and subjection to an unfavorable condition. Racial and ethnic discrimination enhanced the unrest leading to more problems. Other unrest includes ethnic confrontation, violence, and conflicts ("K-TOWN'92").
There was violence in most parts targeting Korean Immigrant. Heavy lootings and fire were experienced across LA Country. The Korean's stores were set on fire and more 4,500 stores destroyed. During the unrest, the Koreans lost millions of property through damage and looting. The businesses owned by the Koreans were destroyed during the unrest. There was a dusk to dawn curfew leading to the closure of major freeways. The unrest caused loss of water, electricity and telephone services. Moreover, cases of killings, arson, looting and continuous assaults were reported.
The Korean relationship with the blacks and Latinos after the civil unrest caused serious consequences. The merchants tried to reintegrate into South Central community causing both positive and negative impacts. The Korean immigrant developed new business ideas after the unrest. There was a discourse between the blacks and whites causing racial framework causing racial framework. The racial relation evolved and the liaison between the two worsened leading to serious problems. There was reticulation of racial ideology causing non-positivist relationship among the existing ethnicity based on different ideology and social cons...
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