|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Politics Barack Obama|
Presidential speeches are based on circumstances under which they deliver the particular speech. The aim of this paper is to establish whether there is a clear difference between the two speeches of two presidents in the United States. The paragraphs of speech analysis was subjective because coding was based on the interpretations of the researcher. The coding of the paragraphs was highly influenced by the president's actions and the current political climate at the time of the speech. The addresses will be analyzed paragraph by paragraph to assess how the sentences reflect various topics and values. The study will focus on the multiple words and values in speeches of President Bush and Obama (Browne, 2016; Gerhard, 2015; ). Other studies have emphasized the repetition of words in various presidential speeches but only focus on similar occasion speeches. (Ericson, 2008; Chester, 2010). However, this study did not pay attention to how a single speech by a single president changes within time during their term (Teten, 2003)
President Barack Obama's 2013 inaugural address
Obama used his second term inaugural address to give a powerful address and strongly addressed a defiantly an open-minded agenda and urged Americans to regain from progressives regarding the spirit of founding fathers. While addressing a crowd of over half a million citizens in front of the congress, the promised that he will fight against corruption and prejudice and bring equality in the gay community "Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law - for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well." (Code: Equality), address climate change issues and grant citizenship ton deserving undocumented immigrants. He states that "We will respond to the threat of climate change, knowing that the failure to do so would betray our children and future generations. Some may still deny the overwhelming judgment of science, but none can avoid the devastating impact of raging fires, and crippling drought, and more powerful storms. The path towards sustainable energy sources will be long and sometimes difficult." (Code: Environment). The president emphasized on the equality among women, he made appeals for equal pay among women, "It is now our generation's task to carry on what those pioneers began. For our journey is not complete until our wives, our mothers, and daughters can earn a living equal to their efforts." (Code: Equality). Mindful about how second term presidents disappoint and end up failing to honor their promise, Obama held out the view of supporting the past. "America's possibilities are limitless ... My fellow Americans, we are made for this moment, and we will seize it so long as we seize it together" (Code: History). (Toolin, 2015).
Obama steeped his speech on the constitution of the United States and rhetorical allusions towards Martin Luther King, emphasizing on the importance of inauguration. Compared to his first inauguration speech in 2009, the second was more inspirational. His unrealistic hopes for the nation and the country experienced the worst economic crisis, he reduced his prospects. He highlighted the importance of collectivism, the necessity for the government to assist low privileged individuals out of poverty.
He refrained on the interpretation of the constitution throughout his speech saying the founding fathers did not intend to enslave the Americans. He stated that ""That is our generation's task - to make these words, these rights, these values of life, and liberty, and the pursuit of happiness - real for every American. Being true to our founding documents does not require us to agree on every contour of life; it does not mean we will all define liberty in exactly the same way, or follow the same precise path to happiness." (Code: Citizenship). It was the duty of the citizens to make constitutional principles a reality emphasizing that although historical evidences might be self-evident, they cannot be self-executing.
In his second inaugural speech, Obama references President Bush and fellow citizens regarding their dedication to serve the country diligently. He states "My fellow citizens, I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our Nation, as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition" (Code: Unity). President Obama also states the importance of economic growth and the specific infrastructural growth that are intertwined with the economy, he states that "Together, we determined that a modern economy requires railroads and highways to speed travel and commerce, schools and colleges to train our workers." (Code: Economy). President Obama highlighted on the foreign policy stating that the United States will strive to resolve their differences with other nations and increase the capacity of institutions that manage crisis across the globe and support democracy. He states that "We will defend our people and uphold our values through strength of arms and rule of law." (Code: Foreign policy).
President Obama's Farewell Speech
President Obama started his speech graciously, thanking the people for inspiring and shaping him over the past eight years he has been in office. He stated that "But tonight, tonight it's my turn to say thanks. Whether we've seen eye-to-eye or rarely agreed at all, my conversations with you, the American people." (Code: Thanks, gratitude). Afterwards he discussed why America is exceptional, not because it is flawless but because it holds the "capacity to change"(Code: change). He highlighted some of his achievements including Obama care, pulling America out of recession "If I have told you eight years ago, that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the longest stretch of job creation in our history." (Code: Economy). Ending Iran's nuclear weapons program peacefully "shut down Iran's nuclear weapons program without firing a shot". (Code: War). Marriage equality and health insurance by introducing an affordable care. This includes the extension of Medicaid and newer insurance options over the Obama care change. He stated that "If I had told you that we would win a marriage equality and secure the right to health insurance for another twenty millions of our fellow citizens" (Code: Health, human rights). The unemployment rates reduced from 4.7% to 4.6% which was lowest since August 2007 when the country was at the peak of economic recession. He stated that "the unemployment rate is near a ten year low" (reference). President Obama also emphasized that the potential of the country would fully realized unless "democracy works" and politics "better reflect the decency of our people" (Code: Democracy, Decency).
Bush's First Term Inaugural Address
President Bush during his first inaugural speech referred to a creator by using a capital letter in His, hence I would code the paragraph as a religion, insinuating to God. He stated that "I know this is in our reach because we are guided by a power larger than ourselves, who creates us equal, in His image, and we are confident in principles that unite and lead us onward." (Code: Religion). Bush spoke positively about the United States and its culture by stating "Thank you, all. Chief Justice Rehnquist, President Carter, President Bush, President Clinton, distinguished guests, and my fellow citizens. The peaceful transfer of authority is rare in history, yet common in our country. With a simple oath, we affirm old traditions and make new beginnings." (Code: country, Culture)
Bush highlights the struggles and hardships that United States is facing. However, he does not give a solution to the problems in his speech. He states that "we are in the midst of crisis is now well understood. Our Nation is at war against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the Nation for a new age. Homes have been lost, jobs shed, businesses shuttered. Our health care is too costly. Our schools fail too many. And each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet." (Code: Economy, war, schools, health, jobs)
President Bush gave a speech underlining his solemn pledge to govern empathetically and dedicate to work for Americans. He stated that he would "work to build a single nation of justice and opportunity," (Code: Role). He highlighted the priorities he previously had mentioned through his campaigns including developments in education, improve the economy through a tax cut and addressing medicare and social security, ""We will reform Social Security and Medicare, sparing our children from struggles we have the power to prevent". Bush suggested young workers to put a percentage of their social security taxes in the stock market to get higher returns and involve private companies in manufacture of prescription medication and related services under Medicare.
He underlined the importance of citizenship to the development of America. He stated that "I ask you to be citizens. Citizens, not spectators. Citizens, not subjects. Responsible citizens, building communities of service and a nation of character". (Code: citizenship, unity). President Bush highlighted his democratic leadership where the power of the majority of citizens is exercised under the constitution and endeavor to protest the minority. ""I will live and lead by these principles: to advance my convictions with civility, to pursue the public interest with courage; to speak for greater justice and compassion; to call for responsibility, and try to live it as well." (Code: Democracy). Bush appreciated the former president Clinton for the dedication of service to the nation. He emphasized on reforming education that he previously promised during the campaign period. He indicated that "Together, we will reclaim America's schools, before ignorance and apathy claim more young lives". (Code: Education).
Bush also promised to reduce taxes to for Americans to get value for their hard work. "We will reduce taxes, to recover the momentum of our economy and reward the effort and enterprise of working Americans". (Code: Tax, economy). Bush promised effectively include America in the international affairs and engage the world at its borders with a strong military. He asserted that "build our defenses beyond challenge, confront weapons of mass destruction, so that a new century is spared new horrors" (Code: International Affairs, peace)
Bush's Second Inaugural Address.
During the second inaugural, President Bush the duty to defend their freedom and the role of United States in protecting the citizens and abroad to create peaceful and secure world. Bush pledges Americans to support and rededicate with the aim of promoting freedom and emphasizes on the importance of economic liberation. He asserts that "Freedom, by its nature, must be chosen and defended by citizens and sustained by the rule of law and the protection of minorities. And when the soul of a nation finally speaks, the institutions that arise may reflect customs and traditions very different from our own." (Code: Freedom, citizenship). He expresses gratitude for his appreciation for the honor of the time, "I am grateful for the honor of this hour, mindful of the consequential times in which we live" (Code: gratitude). (Mandel, 2015)
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